Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.
Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.
Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.
Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .
The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.
Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.
innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.
Modern construction is a precision endeavor. Builders must use components manufactured to meet specific standards -- such as beams of a desired composition or rivets of a specific size. The building industry relies on manufacturers to create these components reliably and reproducibly in order to construct secure bridges and sound skyscrapers.
Now imagine construction at a smaller scale -- less than 1/100th the thickness of a piece of paper. This is the nanoscale. It is the scale at which scientists...05.11.2019 | Read more
Engineers at The University of Texas at Austin find new material for manufacturing even smaller computer chips to replace silicon.
Not everything is bigger in Texas -- some things are really, really small. A group of engineers at The University of Texas at Austin may have found a new...05.11.2019 | Read more
Last year, graphene made another major splash in the headlines when scientists discovered that by simply rotating two layers of this material one on top of the other, it could behave like a superconductor where electrical currents can flow without resistance. This new phase of matter was seen to appear only when the two graphene layers were twisted between each other at an angle of 1.1º (no more and no less) - the so-called magic angle, and was always accompanied by enigmatic correlated insulator phases, similar to what is observed in mysterious cuprate high-temperature superconductors.
Now, researchers from ICFO in Barcelona have succeeded in vastly improving the device quality of this setup, and in doing so, have stumbled upon something even...04.11.2019 | Read more
A new hybrid material developed by scientists at the University of Liverpool may bring the dream of carbon-free nuclear fusion power a step closer.
The separation of hydrogen's three isotopes (hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium) is of key importance for fusion power technology, but current technologies are...04.11.2019 | Read more
High-temperature plants such as melting furnaces are often exposed to extreme temperature fluctuations. In order to increase the service life of these materials, refractory researchers at TU Freiberg have developed new, patented material composites using flame spraying technology.
Refractory materials are often exposed to extreme conditions. In a melting furnace, for example, they serve as lining material to protect metal aggregates from...04.11.2019 | Read more
Researchers synthesize a new 2D Metal Organic Framework with an ever-growing list of possible applications
Chemists at the Center for Multidimensional Carbon Materials (CMCM), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS, South Korea), have reported the synthesis of...01.11.2019 | Read more
Engineers from the Military Studies Center at Far Eastern Federal University (MSC FEFU) developed a brand-new concrete with improved impact endurance and up to 40% made of waste: rice husk cinder, limestone crushing waste, and siliceous sand. The new concrete is 6-9 times more crackle resistant than the types produced under GOST standards. The related article was published in Inorganic Materials: Applied Research.
The new concrete is suitable for the construction of military and civil defense structures, load-carrying structures of nuclear power plants, or for buildings...31.10.2019 | Read more
Almost everyone uses nanometer-sized alumina these days - this mineral, among others, constitutes the skeleton of modern catalytic converters in cars. Until now, the practical production of nanocorundum with a sufficiently high porosity has not been possible. The situation has changed radically with the presentation of a new method of nanocorundum production, developed as part of a German-Polish cooperation of scientists from Mülheim an der Ruhr and Cracow.
High temperatures and pressures, processes lasting for even dozens of days. Current methods of producing nanometer-sized alumina, a material of significant...30.10.2019 | Read more
The new material could bring consumers affordable access to consumer-grade infrared detectors in products such as autonomous cars and in-home thermal imaging for security or fire protection
Five years ago, when University of Arizona materials scientist Jeffrey Pyun presented his first generation of orange-tinted plastic lens to optical scientist...30.10.2019 | Read more
The building blocks of rationally designed chemicals are simple elements: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and so on. These elements can be combined in myriad ways to accomplish a variety of chemicals with different characteristics. Even the same chemical can be treated differently - with pressure or heat, for example - to show drastically different properties. A simpler version is to think of how water can be boiled to cook pasta or frozen to become ice - the same ingredient can be made into two different states via temperature treatment.
Now, researchers are working to better control how the chemicals respond to treatment, as well as how to reverse the chemicals back to their original state...25.10.2019 | Read more
Conventional light microscopes cannot distinguish structures when they are separated by a distance smaller than, roughly, the wavelength of light. Superresolution microscopy, developed since the 1980s, lifts this limitation, using fluorescent moieties. Scientists at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research have now discovered that graphene nano-molecules can be used to improve this microscopy technique. These graphene nano-molecules offer a number of substantial advantages over the materials previously used, making superresolution microscopy even more versatile.
Microscopy is an important investigation method, in physics, biology, medicine, and many other sciences. However, it has one disadvantage: its resolution is...
Nanooptical traps are a promising building block for quantum technologies. Austrian and German scientists have now removed an important obstacle to their practical use. They were able to show that a special form of mechanical vibration heats trapped particles in a very short time and knocks them out of the trap.
By controlling individual atoms, quantum properties can be investigated and made usable for technological applications. For about ten years, physicists have...
An international team of scientists, including three researchers from New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), has shed new light on one of the central mysteries of solar physics: how energy from the Sun is transferred to the star's upper atmosphere, heating it to 1 million degrees Fahrenheit and higher in some regions, temperatures that are vastly hotter than the Sun's surface.
With new images from NJIT's Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), the researchers have revealed in groundbreaking, granular detail what appears to be a likely...
The Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM in Dresden has succeeded in using Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) to...
15.11.2019 | Event News
15.11.2019 | Event News
05.11.2019 | Event News
21.11.2019 | Life Sciences
21.11.2019 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2019 | Physics and Astronomy