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For the production of rechargeable batteries, it is desirable to use silicon as anode material in Li-ion batteries. The use of silicon anodes theoretically increases battery capacity tenfold compared to conventional graphite anodes. However, the attempt had previously failed, since the layers would expand by 300 to 400 % due to the storage of lithium ions in the Si bulk material. This induces a high residual strain and can destroy the bulk Si after only a few charge cycles. In addition, as a consequence of the irreversible reaction between the Si anode and electrolyte a layer of solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) can develop and lead to a low coulombic efficiency.
Scientists of the University of Stuttgart now succeeded in developing a porous semiconductor layer, which displays a pore distribution from 50 to 3000 nm and eliminates the residual strain. It can be manufactured in a continuous process.
The present technology improves immunogenicity by treating DCs during maturation with the fungal-derived enzyme galactose oxidase. Hereby, a stronger physical interaction between DCs and T cells is achieved resulting in an at least 10-fold improved T cell priming capacity. In cell culture assays both human and mouse DCs showed enhanced T cell priming potential, the murine cells also in vivo.
Even the T cell stimulatory potential of mature DCs that were putatively activated up to a maximum was further improved by the galactose oxidase treatment. Hence, low affine T lymphocytes, as often found in the context of tumor antigens, can be activated and brought to proliferation too.
By improving T cell priming capability and therefore immunogenicity, this technology provides the opportunity to markedly enhance the classical DC maturation and accordingly to improve DC-vaccine approaches for example in tumor or HIV patients.
This invention is a process for detecting salmonellae as well as a fluorescing detection molecule that can be used for detecting salmonellae. This procedure enables the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of salmonellae. A major advantage of this invented technology is that the salmonellae biosensor described here requires no additional devices aside from a fluorescence reading device, and does not require any specially trained technical experts.
This process enables the production of functional fusion tissue of various sizes. One advantage over previous procedures is that it generates larger fusion tissue that is also improved in its differentiation and functionality. The invented fusion tissue is also suitable for screening for new substances, to test substances, to improve or validate known therapeutic substances, or to create new indications and applications for known substances.
Biocatalysts that can perform stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation of steroids are of great interest, since these molecules are among the most strongly marketed compounds of the pharmaceutical industry.
Especially the human metabolites 16-ß-OH-Testosterone and Androstendion are desired products, as they have a wide application as food, dietary supplements and medical products or in terms of diagnostics.
Testosterone can be metabolized by various human microsomal cytochrome P450 systems to the corresponding 16-ß-OH metabolite. So far, these enzymes are not capable of a regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of testosterone. More than that, mammalian P450 systems are characterized by low stability and activity as well as an unpleasant expression level when compared to bacterial P450 systems.
Biochemists and pharmaceutical biologists of Saarland University have developed an effective recombinant biotransformation system based on a Bacillus megaterium strain that is capable of performing both stereo- and regioselective hydroxylation of non-activated carbon atoms of testosterone giving rise to 16-ß-OH-Testosterone in one step. The biocatalyst can further be applied in the synthesis of Androstendion using testosterone as a starting material.
Very fast and cost-efficient synthesis of steroid derivatives
One step transformation of testosterone into 16-ß-OH testosterone
No side products
The biotechnological production of 25-OH Vitamin D3 is of great importance, as this inactivated position 25 within vitamin D3 is hardly achievable by means of organic synthesis, especially in terms of a regio- and stereoselective manner.
Within the human body, 25-OH vitamin D3 is converted into the biological active form of vitamin D3 which is important for the Ca2+ deposit into bones. Furthermore, in case of hepatic cirrhosis, its substitution is essential. It has anti-carcinogenic effects and acts protective in terms of autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases.
25-OH vitamin D3 is also used as a standard in clinical laboratory diagnostics. Altogether, 25-OH vitamin D3 is valuable concerning biotechnology, pharmacy and medicine.
Biochemists of Saarland University identified and optimized two cytochrome P450 systems which are capable of performing a regio- and stereoselective hydroxylation of vitamin D3 in one step, transferring vitamin D3 to 25-OH and other hydroxyl- derivatives of vitamin D3. The enzymes belong to the CYP109 family.
One of these enzymes is capable of synthesizing 25-OH vitamin D3 as a major product and three side products in vitro producing a yield of 26 mg/l/24h.
The second one gives rise to 25-OH vitamin D3 as the only product producing a yield of 5 mg/l/24h.
Synthesis of 25-OH vitamin D3 and other hydroxyl-derivatives in high yields
o 25-OH vitamin D3 and three side products→ 26 mg/l/24h
o 25-OH vitamin D3 → 5 mg/l/24h
Low production costs
No toxic side products as in classical organic synthesis
In freeze substitution the water content in biological samples is replaced with a solvent (usually acetone or methanol) and is a notoriously slow technique. This invention significantly reduces the duration by agitating samples during the process.
Glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1), applied as a recombinant protein, shows powerful longterm cardioprotective effects in a rat model for
myocardial infarction after a single application within 2 hours after infarction.
Biotechnological expression of highly active proteins or small chemical compounds of pharmaceutical relevance is often difficult. Many proteins or molecules of interest (POIs/MOIs) have cytotoxic side effects and interfere with the hosts metabolism. The invention provides a versatile tool - based on a low-temperature inducible protein accumulation system (lt-degron) - and methods to generate so-called phenotypes on demand for the production of POIs/MOIs in a spatial and time-dependent manner ensuring proper posttranslational modifications. For the first time, it has been adopted to multicellular organisms like insects and intact plants in vivo.
Fungi (yeast) of the genus Malassezia are found on the skin of most humans and animals. In humans this disease is most commonly caused by Malassezia furfur. Infections with this pathogen can result in life-threatening fungemia and other nosocomial infections. Rare cases can be attributed to M. pachydermatis. Novel natural substances are provided, which show highly promising activity against M. pachydermatis. MIC values are comparable to those for terbinafine, which is a synthetic antifungal.
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
The MICADO camera, a first light instrument for the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), has entered a new phase in the project: by agreeing to a Memorandum of Understanding, the partners in Germany, France, the Netherlands, Austria, and Italy, have all confirmed their participation. Following this milestone, the project's transition into its preliminary design phase was approved at a kick-off meeting held in Vienna. Two weeks earlier, on September 18, the consortium and the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which is building the telescope, have signed the corresponding collaboration agreement.
As the first dedicated camera for the E-ELT, MICADO will equip the giant telescope with a capability for diffraction-limited imaging at near-infrared...
Self-driving cars will be on our streets in the foreseeable future. In Graz, research is currently dedicated to an innovative driver assistance system that takes over control if there is a danger of collision. It was nature that inspired Dr Manfred Hartbauer from the Institute of Zoology at the University of Graz: in dangerous traffic situations, migratory locusts react around ten times faster than humans. Working together with an interdisciplinary team, Hartbauer is investigating an affordable collision detector that is equipped with artificial locust eyes and can recognise potential crashes in time, during both day and night.
Inspired by insects
Prototype demonstrates feasibility of building terahertz accelerators
An interdisciplinary team of researchers has built the first prototype of a miniature particle accelerator that uses terahertz radiation instead of radio...
New physical effect: researchers discover a change of electrical resistance in magnetic whirls
At present, tiny magnetic whirls – so called skyrmions – are discussed as promising candidates for bits in future robust and compact data storage devices. At...
In cooperation with the Center for Nano-Optics of Georgia State University in Atlanta (USA), scientists of the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics of the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität have made simulations of the processes that happen when a layer of carbon atoms is irradiated with strong laser light.
Electrons hit by strong laser pulses change their location on ultrashort timescales, i.e. within a couple of attoseconds (1 as = 10 to the minus 18 sec). In...