Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.
Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.
Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.
Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.
Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.
The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.
### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.
Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.
This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).
Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.
Underwater construction on offshore wind farms, bridges or locks must presently be done by scuba divers.
For maintenance and repair of metal constructions, a number of processes are available, but these are time consuming and difficult on the divers.22.10.2014 | Read more
Element-by-element tracking of laser processing reveals how metallic alloys reorganize during microscale laser melting processes
High-power lasers that can selectively cut and join metallic products are becoming increasingly important in today’s manufacturing industry. Now, Yingchun Guan...09.10.2014 | Read more
Nondestructive tests find defects that remain hidden to the naked eye, for example, defective weld connections, cracks in the material, voids or inclusions. Fraunhofer IZFP is currently preparing standardization of inductively excited thermography, a novel nondestructive inspection method. This procedure is to be configured as a replacement for magnetic particle testing.
The industrial demand for manufacturing-accompanying nondestructive inspection by standardized methods has grown steadily in recent years. Compared to...09.10.2014 | Read more
Incredibly light and holds up in collisions – but often impossible to weld: this characterizes ultra-high-strength chromium steels that, thanks to their high carbon content, could not be reliably bonded together by laser until now. At this year’s EuroBLECH, the International Sheet Metal Working Technology Exhibition, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will use a B pillar to show how laser welding can be reliably used on press-hardened, martensitic chromium steels.
Within the scope of the research project SECOMAL, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen has determined process parameters and process...02.10.2014 | Read more
Three-dimensional metal printing technology is an expanding field that has enormous potential applications in areas ranging from supporting structures, functional electronics to medical devices. Conventional 3D metal printing is generally restricted to metals with a high melting point, and the process is rather time consuming.
Now scientists at the Beijing Key Laboratory of CryoBiomedical Engineering, part of the Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry at the Chinese Academy of...30.09.2014 | Read more
Researchers at Aalto University have opened a pilot plant that converts CO2 and slag, the by-product of steel manufacturing, into a valuable mineral product.
The product, Precipitated Calcium Carbonate (PCC), is used in e.g. plastics, papers, rubbers and paints. The innovative plant represents the next stage prior...18.09.2014 | Read more
Laser-gas metal arc (GMA) hybrid welding is fast, good for deep welding, and can be used to bridge large gaps.
However, for thicker high-strength, fine-grain structural steels, hot cracks and undesired hardness levels can occur in the welding seam. For this reason, in...05.09.2014 | Read more
It is possible to weld thick pipelines and metal sheets made of aluminum alloys or steel at high speeds of 6 m/min. respectively 1.5 m/min. with a hybrid welding process developed at the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH). In the future, the laser-based process can be used to shorten processing times, and thus significantly reduce the processing costs of liquid gas tanks and pipelines
cientists of the Joining and Cutting of Metals Group at the LZH have developed a process that can be used to make single-sided, zero-defect welds for aluminum...08.07.2014 | Read more
An off-center waveguide enables light to be efficiently extracted from nanoscale lasers.
Semiconductor optical devices are becoming increasingly commonplace. For example, light-emitting diodes, as they become more power efficient, are rapidly...07.07.2014 | Read more
Researchers from Mainz discover that liquid flow changes surface chemistry of minerals, with implications for geological sciences.
A collaborative research team from the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (MPIP) in Germany and the University of Namur in Belgium discovered a...06.06.2014 | Read more
Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.
Graphene is up to the job
At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.
Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...
Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.
A warming planet
Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.
The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...
Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...
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