Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.
Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.
Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.
Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.
Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.
The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.
### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.
Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.
This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).
Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.
The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT has developed a new laser welding technology for temperature-sensitive cylindrical battery cells that is now ready for series production. Since 2009 the experts from in Aachen, Germany have been working on battery joining – the process of connecting individual cells into packs. They are currently working with other Fraunhofer Institutes to put together a complete battery pack.
The all-important joining process is carried out using fiber lasers with a maximum power output of 1 kW. The method is called oscillation laser welding, a...20.04.2015 | Read more
It’s a familiar scenario – limescale in the electric kettle and coffee machine or water stains on the taps, these are problems which are not yet soluble in the household. The situation is however somewhat different in industrial systems: it is precisely in large-scale production with liquid media that so-called ‘fouling’ is often the cause of expensive cleaning cycles and thus of longer machine downtimes.
For example, the milk pasteurization line is stopped once again and cleaned after just one operating cycle because, for example, milk proteins have formed...01.04.2015 | Read more
Highly precise and stable surface coatings are essential for many applications, whether for eyeglasses, or for optics for lasers or telescopes. The project PluTO created a basic understanding of plasma-based coatings. The aim of the project PluTO+ is now to transfer these to industrial applications. For this, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is working on controlling ion beam sputtering (IBS).
Up to now, IBS processes, in comparison to magnetron processes for example, could only be guided by using set parameters, but without online control....16.03.2015 | Read more
Instead of completely exchanging expensive components after wear and tear, these can be repaired using deposition welding. Up to now, a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process has usually been used for deposition welding, with an average feed rate of five kilos per hour.
Since the dilution level is around 30 percent, several layers must be deposited, one on the other, until the protective covering is pure enough. Scientists at...11.03.2015 | Read more
Scientists at the Critical Materials Institute have developed a two-step recovery process that makes recycling rare-earth metals easier and more cost-effective.
Rare-earth metals are valuable ingredients in a variety of modern technologies and are found in cell phones, hard disk drives in computers, and other consumer...05.03.2015 | Read more
Natural resins obtained from plants to be used as a coating element to enhance durability and anti-rust properties.
Coating systems are formulated using a mixture of dammar, silver and nanoclay in varied compositions. Generally the problems in the coating area are poor coat...27.02.2015 | Read more
Three-dimensional printing of polymer, metal or ceramic components is an additive manufacturing technology and enables the manufacture of individual and complex products for a variety of applications. Up to now, this manufacturing process has been a batch process and has required costly maintenance.
Sponsored by the Volkswagen Foundation, scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM have developed a new...25.02.2015 | Read more
Laser processing produces deep ripples in silicon over a wide area — something that could enhance solar cell efficiency
A*STAR scientists have produced a uniform nanoscale ripple pattern over a wide area on a silicon surface by scanning a femtosecond laser beam across it. Given...26.01.2015 | Read more
Traditionally, plastic recycling processes involve using a lot of water. In order to avoid this waste, Ak Inovex from Mexico developed a new green technology that doesn’t require liquids, and has the capacity to process materials such as styrofoam, polystyrene and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) using the same type of customizable machinery.
The technology developed by Marco Adame, founder of Ak Inovex, can process more than 90 percent of any type of plastic, avoids water waste and reduces...05.01.2015 | Read more
A new method that creates large-area patterns of three-dimensional nanoshapes from metal sheets represents a potential manufacturing system to inexpensively mass produce innovations such as "plasmonic metamaterials" for advanced technologies.
The metamaterials have engineered surfaces that contain features, patterns or elements on the scale of nanometers that enable unprecedented control of light...12.12.2014 | Read more
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
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