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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Infrared Emitters Enable New Manufacturing Processes

Infrared heat for sandwich structures

The manufacture of the latest sandwich structures, such as those used in modern aircraft and motor vehicles, requires various heating processes. An infrared...

11.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Spray drying the precision particle under the virtual magnifying glass

Spray drying is a common manufacturing process, used in the production of ceramic granulate for technical components or dental prostheses as well as dissolvable medicinal substances, food additives and in the processing of milk into powder. Using computer simulation methodology developed by scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM, a more comprehensible understanding can now be gained of the behavior of particles in solvent during the spray drying process. This allows powder and granulate manufacturers to specifically adjust the properties of their products while reducing waste.

Previously, it was unusual for granule and powder producers to use granulation simulations to improve their products. For new product development or process...

06.05.2015 | nachricht Read more

Electrical Storage: Safe Contacts between Battery Cells by Laser Beam Welding

The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT has developed a new laser welding technology for temperature-sensitive cylindrical battery cells that is now ready for series production. Since 2009 the experts from in Aachen, Germany have been working on battery joining – the process of connecting individual cells into packs. They are currently working with other Fraunhofer Institutes to put together a complete battery pack.

The all-important joining process is carried out using fiber lasers with a maximum power output of 1 kW. The method is called oscillation laser welding, a...

20.04.2015 | nachricht Read more

Saving costs with antifouling coatings

It’s a familiar scenario – limescale in the electric kettle and coffee machine or water stains on the taps, these are problems which are not yet soluble in the household. The situation is however somewhat different in industrial systems: it is precisely in large-scale production with liquid media that so-called ‘fouling’ is often the cause of expensive cleaning cycles and thus of longer machine downtimes.

For example, the milk pasteurization line is stopped once again and cleaned after just one operating cycle because, for example, milk proteins have formed...

01.04.2015 | nachricht Read more

Active control of IBS processes in the near future

Highly precise and stable surface coatings are essential for many applications, whether for eyeglasses, or for optics for lasers or telescopes. The project PluTO created a basic understanding of plasma-based coatings. The aim of the project PluTO+ is now to transfer these to industrial applications. For this, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is working on controlling ion beam sputtering (IBS).

Up to now, IBS processes, in comparison to magnetron processes for example, could only be guided by using set parameters, but without online control....

16.03.2015 | nachricht Read more

One light arc, two wires and a laser: HoDopp – high power deposition welding

Instead of completely exchanging expensive components after wear and tear, these can be repaired using deposition welding. Up to now, a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process has usually been used for deposition welding, with an average feed rate of five kilos per hour.

Since the dilution level is around 30 percent, several layers must be deposited, one on the other, until the protective covering is pure enough. Scientists at...

11.03.2015 | nachricht Read more

New CMI Process Recycles Valuable Rare Earth Metals From Old Electronics

Scientists at the Critical Materials Institute have developed a two-step recovery process that makes recycling rare-earth metals easier and more cost-effective.

Rare-earth metals are valuable ingredients in a variety of modern technologies and are found in cell phones, hard disk drives in computers, and other consumer...

05.03.2015 | nachricht Read more

Combating Bacteria Via Silver-Dammar Coating

Natural resins obtained from plants to be used as a coating element to enhance durability and anti-rust properties.

Coating systems are formulated using a mixture of dammar, silver and nanoclay in varied compositions. Generally the problems in the coating area are poor coat...

27.02.2015 | nachricht Read more

Fraunhofer IFAM develops continuous 3D printing for mass production

Three-dimensional printing of polymer, metal or ceramic components is an additive manufacturing technology and enables the manufacture of individual and complex products for a variety of applications. Up to now, this manufacturing process has been a batch process and has required costly maintenance.

Sponsored by the Volkswagen Foundation, scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM have developed a new...

25.02.2015 | nachricht Read more

Making waves with lasers

Laser processing produces deep ripples in silicon over a wide area — something that could enhance solar cell efficiency

A*STAR scientists have produced a uniform nanoscale ripple pattern over a wide area on a silicon surface by scanning a femtosecond laser beam across it. Given...

26.01.2015 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

Im Focus: Computer-Designed Customized Regenerative Heart Valves

Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.

Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...

Im Focus: Light-induced superconductivity under high pressure

A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...

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