Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.
Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.
Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.
Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.
Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.
The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.
### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.
Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.
This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).
Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.
Instead of completely exchanging expensive components after wear and tear, these can be repaired using deposition welding. Up to now, a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process has usually been used for deposition welding, with an average feed rate of five kilos per hour.
Since the dilution level is around 30 percent, several layers must be deposited, one on the other, until the protective covering is pure enough. Scientists at...11.03.2015 | Read more
Scientists at the Critical Materials Institute have developed a two-step recovery process that makes recycling rare-earth metals easier and more cost-effective.
Rare-earth metals are valuable ingredients in a variety of modern technologies and are found in cell phones, hard disk drives in computers, and other consumer...05.03.2015 | Read more
Natural resins obtained from plants to be used as a coating element to enhance durability and anti-rust properties.
Coating systems are formulated using a mixture of dammar, silver and nanoclay in varied compositions. Generally the problems in the coating area are poor coat...27.02.2015 | Read more
Three-dimensional printing of polymer, metal or ceramic components is an additive manufacturing technology and enables the manufacture of individual and complex products for a variety of applications. Up to now, this manufacturing process has been a batch process and has required costly maintenance.
Sponsored by the Volkswagen Foundation, scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM have developed a new...25.02.2015 | Read more
Laser processing produces deep ripples in silicon over a wide area — something that could enhance solar cell efficiency
A*STAR scientists have produced a uniform nanoscale ripple pattern over a wide area on a silicon surface by scanning a femtosecond laser beam across it. Given...26.01.2015 | Read more
Traditionally, plastic recycling processes involve using a lot of water. In order to avoid this waste, Ak Inovex from Mexico developed a new green technology that doesn’t require liquids, and has the capacity to process materials such as styrofoam, polystyrene and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) using the same type of customizable machinery.
The technology developed by Marco Adame, founder of Ak Inovex, can process more than 90 percent of any type of plastic, avoids water waste and reduces...05.01.2015 | Read more
A new method that creates large-area patterns of three-dimensional nanoshapes from metal sheets represents a potential manufacturing system to inexpensively mass produce innovations such as "plasmonic metamaterials" for advanced technologies.
The metamaterials have engineered surfaces that contain features, patterns or elements on the scale of nanometers that enable unprecedented control of light...12.12.2014 | Read more
Researchers have developed a coating technique that they plan to use to protect tur- bine engine and waste incinerator components against heat and oxidation. A topcoat from micro-scaled hollow aluminium oxide spheres provides heat insulation, in the lab, already proved more economical than conventional techniques.
Gases don’t conduct heat as well as solids do. Cellular or aerated concretes take advantage of this effect, which experts call “gas-phase insulation”.24.11.2014 | Read more
What began as research into a method to strengthen metals has led to the discovery of a new technique that uses a pulsing laser to create synthetic nanodiamond films and patterns from graphite, with potential applications from biosensors to computer chips.
"The biggest advantage is that you can selectively deposit nanodiamond on rigid surfaces without the high temperatures and pressures normally needed to produce...06.11.2014 | Read more
Berkeley Lab Reports Breakthrough in Microring Laser Cavities
A significant breakthrough in laser technology has been reported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)’s Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab)...31.10.2014 | Read more
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
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