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What is process technology?

Process technology is when a product is manufactured from a raw material by using chemical, biological or physical processes.

Process technology can be viewed as the time between the production of a raw material and the manufacture of a product. The number of processes that are involved plays no role here. A good example is the manufacture of various metals from iron ore. Or petroleum, which has to be processed so that various end products can be manufactured using process technology. Process technology uses processes to modify more than just raw materials. This can include recyclable materials for instance. Especially in today's "green environment",process technology is utilized to process renewable raw materials , or bioenergy as it's called. This can involve different grains and other raw materials such as rape seed, from which bioenergy can be produced through various processes.

There is more than one process technology

Process technology is not limited to a single process. It can be classified into five different process technologies, all of which involve their own process. First, there is thermal process technology , which deals with distillation. In contrast to thermal process technology, chemical process technology relies on chemical processes such as hydrolysis. Electrochemical process technology utilizes electrochemical processes such as the synthesis of various chemicals. Process technologies based solely on biological processes focus more on the use of bacteria, fungi or yeast.

Every process technology brings advantages and disadvantages. For this reason, the process technology must be selected on a case by case basis. Companies frequently utilize various process technologies to achieve the optimum result.

Hydrolysis in chemicals and industry

Hydrolysis uses a chemical process to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrolysis also involves the chemical separation of crystallization water. The opposite of hydrolysis is dehydration synthesis, which as the term implies involves the splitting of hydrogen instead of water.

How does hydrolysis work?

The application of phosphoric or sulfuric acid as catalysts in hydrolysis causes alcohols to react for instance. The water then separates from the alcohol through the hydrolysis process. Hydrolysis can also be induced by using zinc chloride. Viewed on a large-scale, hydrolysis can also be activated at a specific pressure, which triggers the hydrolysis during the vapor phase. Alcohols frequently react with one another during hydrolysis. This hydrolysis process creates one molecule from two molecules of ethanol alcohol during the vapor phase at a temperature of 260°C. All of this can be triggered through hydrolysis.

What else can be produced through hydrolysis?

### invalid font number 31506 In addition to acetic anhydride, which is produced by hydrolyzing acetic acid, hydrolysis is also used to produce phthalicanhydride from phthalic acid. These processes should be carried out only by trained chemists and physicists. Some processes are extremely complex and can trigger various side effects if carried out improperly. If the human body is exposed to excessive levels of acid during a process, it can result in damage to the respiratory tract.

Hydrolysis and process technology work hand in hand. A wide range of industries rely on hydrolysis for producing a variety of materials, which makes hydrolysis ideally suited for manufacturing processes.

Process Engineering

This special field revolves around processes for modifying material properties (milling, cooling), composition (filtration, distillation) and type (oxidation, hydration).

Valuable information is available on a broad range of technologies including material separation, laser processes, measuring techniques and robot engineering in addition to testing methods and coating and materials analysis processes.

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Sustainable products: Fraunhofer LBF investigates recycling of halogen-free flame retardant

Zero plastics to landfill increases the need to mechanical recycling of plastics. This also applies to flame retardant plastics which are increasingly formulated with halogen-free flame retardants. According to EU regulations, plastic waste recycling is to increase in quality, and recycling rates should continue to rise: the EU target for 2020 is 70 percent.

The Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF in Darmstadt/Germany has therefore launched a new research project on the...

17.02.2016 | nachricht Read more

CT-Automat: Fully automatic serial testing of materials and components

For many years, Fraunhofer IZFP’s CT-Automat, a system for computed tomography (CT), has proven to be a fully automated laboratory system for industrial quality control. Several leading European seed companies are using it as an effective tool for control and quality assessment in seed production for fast obtainment of objective quality statements concerning single seeds. This nondestructive inspection procedure evaluates the quality of the seed without damaging the seed itself and without altering the surface.

The CT Automat is used by Europe's leading seed producers to minimize seed rejects especially in case of sugar beet seeds to ensure at same time high-quality...

16.02.2016 | nachricht Read more

Small parts make the difference

Call for partners: high coating-rate vacuum deposition for small parts in big volumes

Bulk goods? – yes, numerous small parts in industrial manufacturing are produced and processed in such large quantities that we speak of them as bulk goods....

12.01.2016 | nachricht Read more

Nanopores could take the salt out of seawater

University of Illinois engineers have found an energy-efficient material for removing salt from seawater that could provide a rebuttal to poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge's lament, "Water, water, every where, nor any drop to drink."

The material, a nanometer-thick sheet of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) riddled with tiny holes called nanopores, is specially designed to let high volumes of...

12.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Coking of fluid fuels - New procedure shall analyze and avoid reasons

In heating appliances, diesel engines and other technical systems driven by fluid fuels and lubricants, combustion can lead to growing undesirable deposits (coking), which may affect the functionality of the system. Deposits arise during the evaporation of fuels on hot surfaces. The detailed processes are unclear. Within a common research project, the chair for Analytical Chemistry of the University Rostock and the Oel-Waerme-Institut (OWI) want to get to the bottom of the reasons for deposit formation in modern combustion systems.

Deposits arise during the evaporation of fuels on hot surfaces. The detailed processes are unclear. Within a common research project, the chair for Analytical...

06.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

LIMBO: Innovative joining technology for temperature-sensitive components

This November, the Experts of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presentinga pioneering novelty at productronica 2015, the world's leading trade fair for electronics development and production.They are focusing on a totally new laser-based joining technique that will provide plenty of momentum to the electronics production industry.

The five letters stand for a development from Aachen that is meant to inspire specialists from the electronics manufacturing sector: they are talking about...

04.11.2015 | nachricht Read more

Using optical fiber to generate a two-micron laser

Lasers with a wavelength of two microns could move the boundaries of surgery and molecule detection. Researchers at EPFL have managed to generate such lasers using a simple and inexpensive method

In recent years, two-micron lasers (0.002 millimetre) have been of growing interest among researchers. In the areas of surgery and molecule detection, for...

09.10.2015 | nachricht Read more

Water pathways make fuel cells more efficient

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have developed a coating technique in the laboratory that could raise the efficiency of fuel cells. The PSI scientists have already applied to patent the technique, which is suitable for mass production.

Researchers from the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) have developed a coating technique in the laboratory that could raise the efficiency of fuel cells. Fuel...

24.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Infrared heat helps to get a good grip

Did you know that Infrared makes the handle of watering cans more comfortable?

Steering wheels, watering cans and handles shall have a good grip. On no account must they have sharp edges. However, sharp burrs cannot always be avoided when...

22.09.2015 | nachricht Read more

Lighter with Laser Welding

For a definitive breakthrough of lightweight materials in the automotive industry, new processes for manufacturing, testing and measuring are necessary. For this, steel-aluminum hybrid welds are of great interest, since they can be used for load-adapted, and at the same time lightweight components. Within the project LaserLeichter (Laser Lighter), the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is currently developing a laser welding process for joining three-dimensional structures made of steel and aluminum in a hybrid design.

One of the challenges in welding steel with aluminum is to avoid hard and brittle intermetallic phases in the welding seam. These phases can occur easily,...

03.09.2015 | nachricht Read more
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Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: The fastest light-driven current source

Controlling electronic current is essential to modern electronics, as data and signals are transferred by streams of electrons which are controlled at high speed. Demands on transmission speeds are also increasing as technology develops. Scientists from the Chair of Laser Physics and the Chair of Applied Physics at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have succeeded in switching on a current with a desired direction in graphene using a single laser pulse within a femtosecond ¬¬ – a femtosecond corresponds to the millionth part of a billionth of a second. This is more than a thousand times faster compared to the most efficient transistors today.

Graphene is up to the job

Im Focus: LaserTAB: More efficient and precise contacts thanks to human-robot collaboration

At the productronica trade fair in Munich this November, the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will be presenting Laser-Based Tape-Automated Bonding, LaserTAB for short. The experts from Aachen will be demonstrating how new battery cells and power electronics can be micro-welded more efficiently and precisely than ever before thanks to new optics and robot support.

Fraunhofer ILT from Aachen relies on a clever combination of robotics and a laser scanner with new optics as well as process monitoring, which it has developed...

Im Focus: The pyrenoid is a carbon-fixing liquid droplet

Plants and algae use the enzyme Rubisco to fix carbon dioxide, removing it from the atmosphere and converting it into biomass. Algae have figured out a way to increase the efficiency of carbon fixation. They gather most of their Rubisco into a ball-shaped microcompartment called the pyrenoid, which they flood with a high local concentration of carbon dioxide. A team of scientists at Princeton University, the Carnegie Institution for Science, Stanford University and the Max Plank Institute of Biochemistry have unravelled the mysteries of how the pyrenoid is assembled. These insights can help to engineer crops that remove more carbon dioxide from the atmosphere while producing more food.

A warming planet

Im Focus: Highly precise wiring in the Cerebral Cortex

Our brains house extremely complex neuronal circuits, whose detailed structures are still largely unknown. This is especially true for the so-called cerebral cortex of mammals, where among other things vision, thoughts or spatial orientation are being computed. Here the rules by which nerve cells are connected to each other are only partly understood. A team of scientists around Moritz Helmstaedter at the Frankfiurt Max Planck Institute for Brain Research and Helene Schmidt (Humboldt University in Berlin) have now discovered a surprisingly precise nerve cell connectivity pattern in the part of the cerebral cortex that is responsible for orienting the individual animal or human in space.

The researchers report online in Nature (Schmidt et al., 2017. Axonal synapse sorting in medial entorhinal cortex, DOI: 10.1038/nature24005) that synapses in...

Im Focus: Tiny lasers from a gallery of whispers

New technique promises tunable laser devices

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are used to make tiny micro-lasers, sensors, switches, routers and other devices. These tiny structures rely on a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

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