Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.
Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.
Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.
Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .
The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.
Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.
innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.
Japanese researchers show the phase separation of two substances depends on the topology of the pore
Researchers at University of Tokyo Institute of Industrial Science (IIS) report a new physical model that shows how the topology of a porous material...29.12.2017 | Read more
Osaka University-led researchers create a thermoelectric material (ytterbium silicide) with a high power factor at room temperature
Osaka - Thermoelectric (TE) materials could play a key role in future technologies. Although the applications of these remarkable compounds have long been...27.12.2017 | Read more
Porous coordination polymers (PCPs) or metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have been extensively studied for their diversified and designable/tailorable framework and pore structures. Compared with conventional porous materials, MOFs have much larger framework flexibility, which can give rise to not only various types of interesting structural responses and dynamic behaviors toward external stimuli, but also significantly improved performances for storage, separation, sensing and other applications.
Therefore, controlling the flexibility of MOFs, or rational design and synthesis of MOFs with specified flexibility and dynamism, are of practical importance....27.12.2017 | Read more
A team from the Faculty of Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University suggested using porous silicon nanowire arrays in highly sensitive gas sensors. These devices will be able to detect the presence of toxic and non-toxic gas molecules in the air at room temperature. The results of the study were published in Physica Status Solidi A: Applications and Materials Science journal.
Taking into account high levels of environmental pollution in the modern world, it is important to develop new sensitive devices able to identify molecules in...27.12.2017 | Read more
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful scientific tool used in medical imaging and in probing the chemical structure of molecules and compounds. New research from Brown University shows a technique that helps adapt NMR to study the physical properties of thin films, two-dimensional nanomaterials and exotic states of matter.
NMR involves applying a strong magnetic field to sample and then zapping it with pulses of radio waves. The magnetic field aligns the magnetic moments, or...20.12.2017 | Read more
Researchers from North Carolina State University have found that the transfer of triplet excitons from nanomaterials to molecules also creates a feedback mechanism that returns some energy to the nanocrystal, causing it to photoluminesce on long time scales. The mechanism can be adjusted to control the amount of energy transfer, which could be useful in optoelectronic applications.
Felix N. Castellano, Goodnight Innovation Distinguished Chair of Chemistry at NC State, had previously shown that semiconductor nanocrystals could transfer...19.12.2017 | Read more
Based on diversity and functional design of molecule structures with color covering the entire visible spectrum, organic semiconductors have excellent luminescence and lasing properties as well as good solution processing performance. Organic light emitting diode (OLED) has entered the industrialization stage as a kind of advanced display technology.
Low-cost organic semiconductor materials belong to four-level laser system that facilitates the realizing of population inversion. Organic lasers are...19.12.2017 | Read more
Rice University scientists find porous nanoparticles get tougher under pressure, but not when assembled
Porous particles of calcium and silicate show potential as building blocks for a host of applications like self-healing materials, bone-tissue engineering,...19.12.2017 | Read more
Graphene Flagship scientists, led by researchers at ICFO - The Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona, Spain, have detected graphene's out-of-plane heat transfer in van der Waals heterostructures. In their paper published in Nature Nanotechnology they follow this process in real-time. This phenomenon has many implications for optoelectronic devices.
Nanoscale heat flow plays a crucial role in many modern electronic and optoelectronic applications, such as thermal management, photodetection, thermoelectrics...18.12.2017 | Read more
Can companies rely on the results of one or two scientific studies to design a new industrial process or launch a new product? In at least one area of materials chemistry, the answer may be yes -- but only 80 percent of the time.
The replicability of results from scientific studies has become a major source of concern in the research community, particularly in the social sciences and...15.12.2017 | Read more
A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
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