Materials sciences involves the research, development, characterization, manufacture and processing of materials.
Copper, steel and iron were produced as early as the Neolithic, roughly around 4,300 B.C. Copper and iron were produced as far back as the New Stone Age, roughly 4,300 B.C. This was then followed by the transition to the Bronze Age. It wasn't until the Iron Age that apart from iron, steel and copper, aluminum was also produced using the Hall-Héroult process. For a long time, materials sciences was interested almost exclusively in metals such as iron, copper and steel. However, this has changed with the rediscovery of concrete. While the first, mass-produced plastic materials eventually attracted the interest of the broad public, materials sciences continues to carry out research into iron, copper and steel.
Copper, steel and iron were the first metals that mankind became familiar with as it evolved. Copper is very easy to process. As a result, copper was already being used 10,000 years ago by the oldest known cultures 10,000. The era of large-scale copper use (between 3,000 and 5,000 B.C.) is referred to as the Copper Age. The devotees of alchemy associate copper with Venus, the symbol of femininity. The first mirrors were even made from copper. The Roman Empire was the largest producer of copper prior to the Industrial Age. Copper remains an extremely popular material.
Mankind has acquired long years of practical experience with steel. Steel is a preferred material in engineering because of its durability, excellent corrosion properties and suitability for welding. It is significantly more stable than copper. The European steel registry lists more than 2,300 types of steel. Coal and steel served as the pillars of heavy industry over a long period of time and were thus the foundations of political power. Steel is defined as an iron-carbon alloy with less than 2.06 percent carbon content. Steel, or iron, has a density of 7.85-7.87 g/cm3. Steel melts at a temperature that can be as high as 1,536°C and therefore withstands much higher temperatures than copper.Steel was first produced around 1,000 B.C., much later than copper. In an ecological sense, steel is a sustainable material because it can be continuously reused with minimal quality loss .
The use of iron was first recorded around 4,000 B.C. in Egypt. It was a solid iron used for decorations and for making spear tips. It was more suitable for these purposes than steel or copper. Smelted iron appeared later in Mesopotamia and Egypt, but it was only intended for ceremonial purposes. Perhaps iron came about as a byproduct of bronze production. After the Hethiter developed a method to produce iron, cultures became increasingly reliant on iron between 1,600 and 1,200 B.C. Iron is thought to be a major element of the earth's core, along with nickel. Iron is produced by reducing iron ore through a chemical reaction with carbon. In contrast to steel or copper, iron is produced in blast furnaces.
Materials management deals with the research, development, manufacturing and processing of raw and industrial materials. Key aspects here are biological and medical issues, which play an increasingly important role in this field.
innovations-report offers in-depth articles related to the development and application of materials and the structure and properties of new materials.
Wood could potentially replace petrol in chemistry and concrete in construction, according to studies conducted under the National Research Programme "Resource Wood". They show how precious chemical compounds can be extracted from wood, how its usability as a building material can be improved, and how forest management can be optimsed.
Wood is not just a conventional material, it also has great innovation potential as a high-tech component and raw material for chemistry. This is one of the...07.11.2017 | Read more
Dendritic fibrous nanosilica (DFNS) attracted a great deal of attention in a large number of scientific disciplines such as catalysis, solar energy harvesting (photocatalysis, solar cells, etc.), energy storage, self-cleaning antireflective coatings, surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based ultra-sensitive sensors, CO2 capture, and biomedical applications (drug delivery, protein and gene delivery, bioimaging, photothermal ablation, Ayurvedic and radiotherapeutics drug delivery, etc.).
As discussed in this review, the unique fibrous morphology of the DFNS family of materials bestows them with several important properties that were brilliantly...06.11.2017 | Read more
Rice University researchers test 3-D carbon nanostructures' thermal transport abilities
Pillared graphene would transfer heat better if the theoretical material had a few asymmetric junctions that caused wrinkles, according to Rice University...03.11.2017 | Read more
An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a novel hydrogen isotope separation system based on a porous metal organic framework (MOF). The isolation of deuterium from a physico-chemically almost identical isotopic mixture has been a seminal challenge in modern separation technology. This MOF system, meanwhile, could efficiently separate and store deuterium inside the pores, exhibiting the highest selectivity of any system to date.
This breakthrough has been led by Professor Hoi Ri Moon in the School of Natural Science at UNIST, Professor Hyunchul Oh of Gyeongnam National University of...01.11.2017 | Read more
Rice University-led study reveals unknown details about common lithium-ion battery materials
Department of Energy Office of Basic Energy Science, National Science Foundation, University of Wisconsin-Madison WEI Seed Grant, Vilas Research Travel Awards30.10.2017 | Read more
For the last few years, the rate of counterfeiting has been increasing in almost all areas. Apart from financial losses in the billions, counterfeited medications can be fatal. For this reason, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) is working on a flexible marking and identification process which, among other things, can be used to make medications in glass ampules counterfeit-proof.
Using a robust and industrially established marking laser, it will be possible to both individually and quickly mark products with a distinct certificate of...27.10.2017 | Read more
A recent study, affiliated with UNIST has presented a highly stable perovskite solar cells (PSCs), using edged-selectively fluorine (F) functionalized graphene nano-platelets (EFGnPs). This breakthrough has gotten much attention as it is made out of fluorine, a low-cost alternative to gold.
This study has been jointly led by Professor Jin Young Kim in the School of Energy and Chemical Engineering at UNIST in collaboration with Dong Suk Kim of...25.10.2017 | Read more
Functionalized polyolefins are of great economic importance as bonding agents between polyolefins and polar surfaces. Despite years of effort, up to now there has never been any analytic method that could provide a comprehensive understanding of these materials to enable their effectiveness to be quickly assessed, for instance as part of incoming goods controlling. Now, a chromatographic method developed at the Fraunhofer Institute for Structural Durability and System Reliability LBF makes it possible to develop systematic structure-property relationships for these materials for the first time.
This is very useful for the development of more efficient functionalization processes. In addition, this analytic information is highly relevant for material...24.10.2017 | Read more
The Federal Cluster of Excellence MERGE at Chemnitz University of Technology and the Fraunhofer ENAS join forces in order to optimise actuator systems for active flow control in aeroplanes and cars
Active flow control has nothing to do with flowing rivers and the dead wake is actually air, and not really dead at all. Basically speaking: “We investigate...23.10.2017 | Read more
The ICN2 Oxide Nanophysics Group led by ICREA Prof. Gustau Catalán has recently published the latest findings from their research line on flexoelectricity in Advanced Materials.
PhD student Kumara Cordero-Edwards is the lead author of this work, carried out in collaboration with researchers from the Autonomous University of Barcelona...20.10.2017 | Read more
The WHO reports an estimated 429,000 malaria deaths each year. The disease mostly affects tropical and subtropical regions and in particular the African continent. The Fraunhofer Institute for Silicate Research ISC teamed up with the Fraunhofer Institute for Molecular Biology and Applied Ecology IME and the Institute of Tropical Medicine at the University of Tübingen for a new test method to detect malaria parasites in blood. The idea of the research project “NanoFRET” is to develop a highly sensitive and reliable rapid diagnostic test so that patient treatment can begin as early as possible.
Malaria is caused by parasites transmitted by mosquito bite. The most dangerous form of malaria is malaria tropica. Left untreated, it is fatal in most cases....
The formation of stars in distant galaxies is still largely unexplored. For the first time, astron-omers at the University of Geneva have now been able to closely observe a star system six billion light-years away. In doing so, they are confirming earlier simulations made by the University of Zurich. One special effect is made possible by the multiple reflections of images that run through the cosmos like a snake.
Today, astronomers have a pretty accurate idea of how stars were formed in the recent cosmic past. But do these laws also apply to older galaxies? For around a...
Just because someone is smart and well-motivated doesn't mean he or she can learn the visual skills needed to excel at tasks like matching fingerprints, interpreting medical X-rays, keeping track of aircraft on radar displays or forensic face matching.
That is the implication of a new study which shows for the first time that there is a broad range of differences in people's visual ability and that these...
Computer Tomography (CT) is a standard procedure in hospitals, but so far, the technology has not been suitable for imaging extremely small objects. In PNAS, a team from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) describes a Nano-CT device that creates three-dimensional x-ray images at resolutions up to 100 nanometers. The first test application: Together with colleagues from the University of Kassel and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht the researchers analyzed the locomotory system of a velvet worm.
During a CT analysis, the object under investigation is x-rayed and a detector measures the respective amount of radiation absorbed from various angles....
The quantum world is fragile; error correction codes are needed to protect the information stored in a quantum object from the deteriorating effects of noise. Quantum physicists in Innsbruck have developed a protocol to pass quantum information between differently encoded building blocks of a future quantum computer, such as processors and memories. Scientists may use this protocol in the future to build a data bus for quantum computers. The researchers have published their work in the journal Nature Communications.
Future quantum computers will be able to solve problems where conventional computers fail today. We are still far away from any large-scale implementation,...
15.11.2017 | Event News
15.11.2017 | Event News
30.10.2017 | Event News
21.11.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
21.11.2017 | Materials Sciences
21.11.2017 | Health and Medicine