Meat production is complicated, costly and not eco-friendly: fatted animals have to consume five to eight kilos of grain just to generate one kilogram of meat. It would be simpler and more sustainable if one were to make cutlets out of seed – without the detour through the animal‘s body. Impossible?
Not entirely: there are plants that are suitable for the production of meat substitute products. Researchers in the EU-project “LikeMeat” have studied what they are, and how they can be incorporated into a product that tastes and looks like meat. “Studies have shown that many Europeans are ready to give up meat, but there have only been a handful of alternatives until now,“ explains Florian Wild.
The researcher at the Fraunhofer Institute for Process Engineering and Packaging IVV in Freising is spearheading the project. “Our goal is to develop a vegetable surrogate for meat that is both juicy and fibrous, but that also has a pleasant flavor. The product should have a long shelf life, it should not be more expensive than meat, and be suitable for vegetarians and allergy sufferers.“
In addition to the scientists at IVV, experts from the University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU) are also participating in the development, as are consumer researchers from the University of Wageningen, in the Netherlands, and eleven small to medium-sized corporations that manufacture or do business in food or food ingredients. The team roster also includes two Austrian and one Dutch company that have hitherto only processed meat, as well as an organic food producer from Spain.
“As a group, we are seeking to engineer a simple production chain in which pure vegetable raw materials are used to produce a meat substitute that corresponds to consumer preferences,“ as Wild summarizes it. The ingredients originate from the land: Wheat and peas, lupins and soya are all suited for production, explains Wild: “We are intentionally not tying ourselves down to one type of plant because many people get an allergic reaction to the one or other substance. In the process, we have developed a variety of recipes. They are the basis for a product spectrum that offers a broad selection to people who suffer food intolerance or allergies.“
But how do you turn a field crop into meat? “The processing technology was the biggest challenge,“ recalls the project manager. The previously conventional methods of mixing plant proteins with a little water, and heating them under high pressure, proved to be useless: With this hot extrusion process, the mass is heated up under high pressure. At the moment when it pushes through the die, the temperature drops dramatically, steam is released and the mass foams up. That is certainly the desired effect when making peanut flips. But not in the production of meat substitutes. Wild and his colleagues use a new process specially developed for meat substitutes: The main ingredients – water and plant proteins – are brought to a boil and slowly cooled down. Since no sudden release of pressure takes place, no steam blows out of the paste. As the temperature sinks, the protein molecules start to form chains. This gives rise to a fibrous structure that is quite similar to that of meat.
The prototype of the new vegetarian cutlet factory is currently located in the IVV laboratory. The system is no larger than two table tennis tables. On request, it can produce one endless piece of meat approximately 1-cm thick that can be shaped as desired, for example into little morsels for diced or thinly-sliced meats, or entire cutlets. The research team is currently able to produce 60 to 70 kilos of the meat substitute per hour – or 300 to 500 kilos per day. “Consistency and texture are already superb,“ Wild assures. There is still a little work to do on the flavor. By the end of the project term, in one year, the meat substitute from the land should be every bit as good as a genuine cutlet, and it should come directly from the machine, ready-to-eat. The experts will present their new product at the Anuga FoodTec trade fair from March 27 through March 30 in Cologne.
Florian Wild | Fraunhofer Research News
COMPAMED 2016 connected medical devices and people
23.11.2016 | IVAM Fachverband für Mikrotechnik
Successfully transferring Industrie 4.0 into reality
21.11.2016 | Deutsches Forschungszentrum für Künstliche Intelligenz GmbH, DFKI
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
16.11.2016 | Event News
01.11.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
02.12.2016 | Medical Engineering
02.12.2016 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
02.12.2016 | Physics and Astronomy