Metal pieces can be joined together by melting a metal or an alloy with a lower melting temperature than the metal pieces. Since 2006 the use of lead in electrical and electronic products is prohibited in the European Union. Therefore lead-free soldering pastes with low melting points are required. Nanoparticles have been proposed for the use in solder pastes as they have lower melting points than their bulk counterparts.<br><br> <strong>Technology</strong><br> According to legal requirements and the trend to use nanoparticle scientists at the Technische Universität Berlin now developed a method to obtain compact sintered silver layers as joining materials at low temperatures without applying pressure. Therefore a metal-organic silver complex is used that can generate silver nanoparticles during heat treatment below 200 °C. The complex offers the features to form a molten metal-like silver phase in which silver particles in the nanometer and submicron size range, respectively, are completely miscible. The connecting silver layer is stable up to a temperature of ~ 961°C, what is the melting point of bulk silver. In contrast to current state of the art soldering paste this one contains nearly no organic ingredients, as they mostly lead to holes or bubbles with in the bonding layer. First experiments were carried out with copper specimens and achieved pressureless copper-to-copper silver joints at low temperatures. <br><br>
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Automobiles increase the mobility of their users. However, their maneuverability is pushed to the limit by cramped inner city conditions. Those who need to...
Advance in biomedical imaging: The University of Würzburg's Biocenter has enhanced fluorescence microscopy to label and visualise up to nine different cell structures simultaneously.
Fluorescence microscopy allows researchers to visualise biomolecules in cells. They label the molecules using fluorescent probes, excite them with light and...
NASA's follow-on to the successful ICESat mission will employ a never-before-flown technique for determining the topography of ice sheets and the thickness of sea ice, but that won't be the only first for this mission.
Slated for launch in 2018, NASA's Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) also will carry a 3-D printed part made of polyetherketoneketone (PEKK),...
In the last decades, sea level has been rising continuously – about 3.3 mm per year. For reef islands such as the Maldives or the Marshall Islands a sinister picture is being painted evoking the demise of the island states and their cultures. Are the effects of sea-level rise already noticeable on reef islands? Scientists from the ZMT have now answered this question for the Takuu Atoll, a group of Pacific islands, located northeast of Papua New Guinea.
In the last decades, sea level has been rising continuously – about 3.3 mm per year. For reef islands such as the Maldives or the Marshall Islands a sinister...
The ‘Internet of Things’ is growing rapidly. Mobile phones, washing machines and the milk bottle in the fridge: the idea is that minicomputers connected to these will be able to process information, receive and send data. This requires electrical power. Transistors that are capable of switching information with a single electron use far less power than field effect transistors that are commonly used in computers. However, these innovative electronic switches do not yet work at room temperature. Scientists working on the new EU research project ‘Ions4Set’ intend to change this. The program will be launched on February 1. It is coordinated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR).
“Billions of tiny computers will in future communicate with each other via the Internet or locally. Yet power consumption currently remains a great obstacle”,...
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