Metal pieces can be joined together by melting a metal or an alloy with a lower melting temperature than the metal pieces. Since 2006 the use of lead in electrical and electronic products is prohibited in the European Union. Therefore lead-free soldering pastes with low melting points are required. Nanoparticles have been proposed for the use in solder pastes as they have lower melting points than their bulk counterparts.<br><br> <strong>Technology</strong><br> According to legal requirements and the trend to use nanoparticle scientists at the Technische Universität Berlin now developed a method to obtain compact sintered silver layers as joining materials at low temperatures without applying pressure. Therefore a metal-organic silver complex is used that can generate silver nanoparticles during heat treatment below 200 °C. The complex offers the features to form a molten metal-like silver phase in which silver particles in the nanometer and submicron size range, respectively, are completely miscible. The connecting silver layer is stable up to a temperature of ~ 961°C, what is the melting point of bulk silver. In contrast to current state of the art soldering paste this one contains nearly no organic ingredients, as they mostly lead to holes or bubbles with in the bonding layer. First experiments were carried out with copper specimens and achieved pressureless copper-to-copper silver joints at low temperatures. <br><br>
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Peltier Adsorption Trap
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A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
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The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...
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