Current methods to diagnose Alzheimer´s Disease (AD) comprise computer tomography (CT), magnet resonance imaging (MRI) or positron emission tomography (PET) visualizing abnormalities in the brain. Other approaches concerns to the determination of biomarkers such as tau/ phospho-tau or beta Amyloid in body fluids (blood, liquor). However, CSF level of tau is a general marker for neuronal dysfunction and not specific for AD alone (also increased in Creutzfeldt Jacob). In AD patients, decreased levels of Abeta42 could be shown, however the values of concentrations in various AD patients differ dramatically so that Abeta42 alone is not a sufficient reliable marker. Furthermore Abeta42 seems to be decreased only in patients who already have clinical symptoms of AD. It is a strong medical need for diagnostic markers which are able to predict AD at a very early stage before clinical symptoms occur. This would allow earlier treatments before neuronal damage starts. <br><br> <strong>Technology</strong><br> We offer a novel approach for the early recognition of pre-symptomatic stages of AD even 20-30 years before clinical changes/ symptoms like mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD occur. The assay is based on the detection of the Aß38:Aß42 concentration ratio. A decrease of the Aß38:Aß42 ratio (value <1,5) in a phenotypically healthy, pre-symptomatic person is hypothized to be indicative that this person will develop MCI and AD later in life. This statement is based on findings in the human neuroblastoma cell line SHSY5Y stably expressing APP by investigating the expression and procession of AAP and is further based on postulating a gamma-secretase cleavage mechanism of APP-TMS (TM: transmembrane).<br><br>
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Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
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Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
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By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.
"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...
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