After witnessing how environmental cues like plate size and food labels impact eating behaviors, researchers decided to take a look at how similar factors impact drinking experiences.
In their new study by Doug Walker, Laura Smarandescu, and Brian Wansink, drinkers unintentionally poured larger servings when their glasses were wider, when the pourers held them in their hands, and when the glassware matched the wine.
For this study, the researchers recruited 73 students (all of legal drinking age) who drank at least one glass of wine a week. The students were brought to several different stations and were asked to pour themselves a normal serving of wine. At each of these stations, the researchers manipulated environmental cues to measure their effects.
They used three different types of wine glasses to test the effect of size and shape: Large, Wide, or Standard. To see if participants subconsciously drank more when they anticipated a meal, some stations featured a large or small place setting. To examine the effects of pouring position, students either poured their wine into a glass they were holding or into glass placed on a table. To examine the visual effects of color contrast, there was either low contrast between the wine and the glass (white wine in a clear glass) or high contrast (red wine in a clear glass).
As the researchers suspected, several environmental cues lead to over pouring. When glasses were wider, participants poured 11.9% wine. The students poured 12.2% more wine when they were holding their glasses, compared to pouring into glasses placed on a table. When there was low contrast between the glass and the wine (white wine in a clear glass), participants poured 9.2% more wine than when there was high contrast (red wine in a clear glass).
Now you know that youíre likely to overpour if you choose a wide glass, hold your glass while serving, or select a wine that matches your glassóbut the good news is that, retrospectively, people seem to be aware of how these cues influence their pours.
After each student finished the study, researchers asked them to rate the degree to which they felt each element impacted them. Overall, the students were highly accurate; they rated glass width, color contrast, and glass-holding as most influential, and those three factors had indeed lead to the most significant overpouring.
Being aware of the wine cues that impact pouring can help drinkers monitor their intake. However, knowing that youíll pour more into a wide glass is different than knowing just how many ounces youíll pour. When trying to monitor your alcohol consumption accurately, realize that you may be serving yourself 12% more alcohol than you originally planned. When given the option, choose a narrower glass, place your glass on a table before pouring, and select a wine that does not match your glass to avoid unintentionally over-serving!
Walker, D., Smarandescu, L., & Wansink, B. (2013). Half full or empty: Cues that lead wine drinkers to unintentionally overpour. Substance Use & Misuse, Early Online: 1-8. (DOI: 10.3109).
More articles from Studies and Analyses:
Study uncovers new evidence for assessing tsunami risk from very large volcanic island landslides
11.12.2013 | National Oceanography Centre
Money may corrupt, but thinking about time can strengthen morality
11.12.2013 | Association for Psychological Science
The molecular architecture of three key proteins and their complexes reveals how plants fine-tune their immune response to pathogens
Plants rarely get sick in their natural environment. When the threat of infection arises, a quick decision is made about the necessary countermeasures. The course is set by a protein which forms complexes with its partner proteins for this purpose.
Jane Parker from the Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding ...
Researchers studying speciation of butterfly orchids on the Azores have been startled to discover that the answer to a long-debated question "Do the islands support one species or two species?" is actually "three species".
Hochstetter's Butterfly-orchid, newly recognized following application of a battery of scientific techniques and reveling in a complex taxonomic history worthy of Sherlock Holmes, is arguably Europe's rarest orchid species. Under threat in its mountain-top retreat, the orchid urgently requires conservation recognition.
A lavishly illustrated publication, titled "Systematic revision of Platanthera in ...
Researchers from Brown University and the University of Hawaii have found some mineralogical surprises in the Moon's largest impact crater.
Data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper that flew aboard India's Chandrayaan-1 lunar orbiter shows a diverse mineralogy in the subsurface of the giant South Pole Aitken basin.
The differing mineral signatures could be reflective of the minerals dredged up at the time of the giant impact 4 billion years ago, ...
In power electronics systems bonded connections create the central electrical connections between adjoining surfaces.
The quality of these bonded connections is one of the main factors that determines the reliability and availability of drive systems in electric vehicles, and hence constitutes a major design challenge for German auto manufacturers aiming to electrify their vehicles.
Now the partners participating in the RoBE (Robust Bonds in ...
International team of scientists develops new feedback method for optimizing the laser pulse shapes used in the control of chemical reactions
In many ways, traditional chemical synthesis is similar to cooking. To alter the final product, you can change the ingredients or their ratio, change the method of mixing ingredients, or change the temperature or pressure of the environment of the ingredients.
Like an accomplished chef, chemists have become very skilled ...
11.12.2013 | Information Technology
11.12.2013 | Life Sciences
11.12.2013 | Agricultural and Forestry Science
11.12.2013 | Event News
10.12.2013 | Event News
05.12.2013 | Event News