National characteristics of subtitling are disappearing
The national norms that govern the appearance of TV translations have almost completely disappeared and been replaced by international norms, according to a new doctoral dissertation by Jan Pedersen at the Department of English at Stockholm University. National differences in technical norms as well as in norms governing the use of translation solutions are disappearing in Scandinavia.
As late as in the early 1990s, there were distinct differences in how a film or TV programme was translated in Sweden and Denmark. These differences have now almost completely disappeared, due to new technology and globalization. Subtitles are now often produced by international companies that make several language versions, based on the same first-generation translation, while the public service companies in the Scandinavian countries used to be the sources of national subtitling norms.
Jan Pedersen’s dissertation has compared the Swedish and Danish subtitles of 100 anglophone films and TV programmes aired after the turn of the millennium. The dissertation has investigated technical norms: how fast the viewers need to read a subtitle before it disappears, how much is lost in translation, how many subtitles there are in each film etc. Swedish subtitles used to be more compact and stay on screen longer, while Danish norms dictated a fast succession of short subtitles that stuck closely to the cuts in the film. Furthermore, significantly more was lost in Swedish translations as compared to Danish subtitles. These differences are all but gone today.
The focus of the dissertation is on how translators handle cultural references, i.e. when people in a film or TV programme refer to something in the source culture, which may not be known to viewers in the target culture. An example of this is when National Health Services is rendered as Hälsovårds¬myndig¬heten in Swedish subtitles. There are no longer any statistically significant differences in the norms that govern which translation strategies are used. Danish subtitlers used to apply more playful and free strategies to make these references accessible to the TV audience, as when American senator Strom Thurmond was rendered as the Danish politician Mogens Glistrup. Swedish subtitlers, on the other hand, were more focused on content. As a result of the methods used by commercial companies today, where a translation into a Scandinavian language is often based on another Scandinavian translation, the national characteristics have vanished completely.
Maria Erlandsson | alfa
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.
Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...
In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.
“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...
The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.
The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...
Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water
In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...
The efficiency of power electronic systems is not solely dependent on electrical efficiency but also on weight, for example, in mobile systems. When the weight of relevant components and devices in airplanes, for instance, is reduced, fuel savings can be achieved and correspondingly greenhouse gas emissions decreased. New materials and components based on gallium nitride (GaN) can help to reduce weight and increase the efficiency. With these new materials, power electronic switches can be operated at higher switching frequency, resulting in higher power density and lower material costs.
Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE together with partners have investigated how these materials can be used to make power...