Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

The Diagnosis Of Bipolar Depression: Still Unsatisfactory And In Need Of Proper Recognition

27.02.2007
In the second 2007 issue of Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, an article by Italian psychiatrist Franco Benazzi addresses the issue of continuity between bipolar and depressive disorders. Recent studies questioned the current categorical split of mood disorders into bipolar disorders (BP) and depressive disorders (MDD). Medline database search of papers from the last 10 years on the categorical-dimensional classification of mood disorders.

Various combinations of the following key words were used: mood disorders, bipolar, unipolar, major depressive disorder, spectrum, category/categorical, classification, continuity. Only English language clinical papers were included, review papers were excluded, similar papers selected by quality. The number of papers found was 1,141. The number of papers selected was 109.

The continuity/spectrum between BP (mainly BP-II) and MDD was supported by the following findings:(1) high frequency of mixed states (mixed mania, mixed hypomania, mixed depression, i.e. co-occurring depression and noneuphoric manic/hypomanic symptoms) because opposite polarity symptoms in the same episode do not support a hypomania/mania-depression splitting; (2) MDD was the most common mood disorder in BP probands' relatives; (3) no bimodal distribution of distinguishing symptoms between BP and MDD; (4) bipolar signs not uncommon in MDD; (5) many MDD shifting to BP; (6) many lifetime manic/hypomanic symptoms in MDD; (7) correlation between lifetime manic/hypomanic symptoms and MDD symptoms; (8) hypomania factors in MDD; (9) MDD often recurrent; (10) similar cognitive style. The categorical distinction between BP (mainly BP-I) and MDD was supported by the following findings: (1) BP more common in BP probands' relatives; (2) lower age at BP onset; (3) females as common as males in BP-I, more common than males in MDD; (4) BP-I depression more atypical and retarded, MDD depression more sleepless and agitated; (5) BP more recurrent. Focusing on mood spectrum's extremes (BP-I vs. MDD), a categorical distinction seems supported. Focusing on midway disorders (BP-II and MDD plus bipolar signs), a continuity/spectrum seems supported. Results seem to support both a categorical and a dimensional view of mood disorders.

In another article, J. de Fruyt (Belgium) address the issue of mood stabilization. Diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder has long been a neglected discipline. Recent years have shown an upsurge in bipolar research. When compared to major depressive disorder, bipolar research still remains limited and more expert based than evidence based. In bipolar diagnosis the focus is shifting from classic mania to bipolar depression and hypomania. There is a search for bipolar signatures in symptoms and course of major depressive episodes. The criteria for hypomania are softened, leading to a bipolar prevalence that now equals that of major depressive disorder. Anti-epileptics and atypical antipsychotics have joined lithium in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Fortunately, mood stabilization has become the core issue in bipolar disorder treatment. In contrast with recent trends in the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, treatment research remains more focused on classic mania than depression or hypomania. This leaves the clinician with the difficult task of diagnosing 'new bipolar patients' for whom no definite evidence-based treatment is available. An important efficacy-effectiveness gap further compromises the translation of the evidence base on bipolar disorder treatment into clinical practice. The recent upsurge of research on bipolar disorder is to be applauded, but further research is needed: for bipolar disorder in general, and for bipolar depression and the long-term treatment specifically. Given the complexity of the disorder and the many clinical uncertainties, effectiveness studies should be installed.

Dr. Franco Benazzi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.karger.com

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Geographers provide new insight into commuter megaregions of the US
01.12.2016 | Dartmouth College

nachricht Sustainable Development Goals lead to lower population growth
30.11.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Electron highway inside crystal

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. The effect is due to the structure of the materials used. The researchers have now published their work in the journal Science.

Topological insulators are currently the hot topic in physics according to the newspaper Neue Zürcher Zeitung. Only a few weeks ago, their importance was...

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Researchers identify potentially druggable mutant p53 proteins that promote cancer growth

09.12.2016 | Life Sciences

Scientists produce a new roadmap for guiding development & conservation in the Amazon

09.12.2016 | Ecology, The Environment and Conservation

Satellites, airport visibility readings shed light on troops' exposure to air pollution

09.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>