Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Do men have less psychological gender than women?

13.12.2006
When women and men, or boys and girls, are found to differ psychologically, which group seems responsible for the difference? In research published in the Review of General Psychology, University of Surrey psychologists Peter Hegarty (Senior Lecturer) and Carmen Buechel (MSc) have found that the psychological literature tends to contrast women’s and girl’s psychologies against an implicit male norm more often than the reverse.

These authors systematically surveyed forty years of gender difference research in four journals published by the American Psychological Association. Where gender differences were observed, they were described as being 'about' men and boys less often than as being about women and girls. When psychologists explained these differences they similarly mentioned anything particular to men and boys more rarely.

"Even the graphs and tables show evidence of the male-norm effect" said Hegarty. "About three quarters of these positioned men’s data first, and made women the second sex. But this effect was reversed when psychologists depicted data about parents." The conclusion? Men may be the prototype for modern psychology's picture of the typical person, but mothers remain the most typical kind of parent.

The data are all the more striking as between 1965 and 2004 the journals studied ceased to be male-dominated. Roughly equal numbers of the study authors and roughly equal numbers of the participants in the studies now published in these journals are male and female. Hegarty doesn't find it surprising that this shift in the body politic of psychology didn’t undo the male-norm effect. "In laboratory experiments, both women and men tend to spontaneously explain gender differences using a male norm and to attribute differences to females to the same degree. In our study, male and female authors of psychology articles focused their explanations on women to the same degree. Psychologists are not always aware of their implicit decisions about who to explain. "

Is the focus on women and girls a problem? Probably. Hegarty has shown in other research on sexual orientation differences that stereotype-relevant results are explained in ways that perpetuate stereotypes about the group that is not taken as the norm; lesbians and gay men, in that case. Hegarty and Buechel also found that psychologists vastly preferred the phrase ‘more than’ over ‘less than’ when explaining gender differences. Put this together with the male-norm effect and you could reach the absurd conclusion that women and girls have more psychology than men and boys do. Hegarty, a social psychologist himself, is optimistic about what the findings imply for the status of psychology.

“They clearly show an area where more critical thinking is needed about gender, but on the other hand psychological methods allowed us to bring this issue to light and to describe it. Our conclusion is not that psychologists should not study group differences, but that we serve the public better when we think deeply about the ways that we implicitly frame questions about whose behavior is the default standard norm and whose is made the subject of psychological scrutiny.”

Stuart Miller | alfa
Further information:
http://www.surrey.ac.uk
http://portal.surrey.ac.uk/portal/page?_pageid=799,1258756&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Amazingly flexible: Learning to read in your thirties profoundly transforms the brain
26.05.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften

nachricht Fixating on faces
26.01.2017 | California Institute of Technology

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Physicists Design Ultrafocused Pulses

Physicists working with researcher Oriol Romero-Isart devised a new simple scheme to theoretically generate arbitrarily short and focused electromagnetic fields. This new tool could be used for precise sensing and in microscopy.

Microwaves, heat radiation, light and X-radiation are examples for electromagnetic waves. Many applications require to focus the electromagnetic fields to...

Im Focus: Carbon Nanotubes Turn Electrical Current into Light-emitting Quasi-particles

Strong light-matter coupling in these semiconducting tubes may hold the key to electrically pumped lasers

Light-matter quasi-particles can be generated electrically in semiconducting carbon nanotubes. Material scientists and physicists from Heidelberg University...

Im Focus: Flexible proximity sensor creates smart surfaces

Fraunhofer IPA has developed a proximity sensor made from silicone and carbon nanotubes (CNT) which detects objects and determines their position. The materials and printing process used mean that the sensor is extremely flexible, economical and can be used for large surfaces. Industry and research partners can use and further develop this innovation straight away.

At first glance, the proximity sensor appears to be nothing special: a thin, elastic layer of silicone onto which black square surfaces are printed, but these...

Im Focus: 3-D scanning with water

3-D shape acquisition using water displacement as the shape sensor for the reconstruction of complex objects

A global team of computer scientists and engineers have developed an innovative technique that more completely reconstructs challenging 3D objects. An ancient...

Im Focus: Manipulating Electron Spins Without Loss of Information

Physicists have developed a new technique that uses electrical voltages to control the electron spin on a chip. The newly-developed method provides protection from spin decay, meaning that the contained information can be maintained and transmitted over comparatively large distances, as has been demonstrated by a team from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute. The results have been published in Physical Review X.

For several years, researchers have been trying to use the spin of an electron to store and transmit information. The spin of each electron is always coupled...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

Closing the Sustainability Circle: Protection of Food with Biobased Materials

21.07.2017 | Event News

»We are bringing Additive Manufacturing to SMEs«

19.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Physicists gain new insights into nanosystems with spherical confinement

27.07.2017 | Materials Sciences

Seeing more with PET scans: New chemistry for medical imaging

27.07.2017 | Life Sciences

Did you know that infrared heat and UV light contribute to the success of your barbecue?

27.07.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>