Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Do men have less psychological gender than women?

13.12.2006
When women and men, or boys and girls, are found to differ psychologically, which group seems responsible for the difference? In research published in the Review of General Psychology, University of Surrey psychologists Peter Hegarty (Senior Lecturer) and Carmen Buechel (MSc) have found that the psychological literature tends to contrast women’s and girl’s psychologies against an implicit male norm more often than the reverse.

These authors systematically surveyed forty years of gender difference research in four journals published by the American Psychological Association. Where gender differences were observed, they were described as being 'about' men and boys less often than as being about women and girls. When psychologists explained these differences they similarly mentioned anything particular to men and boys more rarely.

"Even the graphs and tables show evidence of the male-norm effect" said Hegarty. "About three quarters of these positioned men’s data first, and made women the second sex. But this effect was reversed when psychologists depicted data about parents." The conclusion? Men may be the prototype for modern psychology's picture of the typical person, but mothers remain the most typical kind of parent.

The data are all the more striking as between 1965 and 2004 the journals studied ceased to be male-dominated. Roughly equal numbers of the study authors and roughly equal numbers of the participants in the studies now published in these journals are male and female. Hegarty doesn't find it surprising that this shift in the body politic of psychology didn’t undo the male-norm effect. "In laboratory experiments, both women and men tend to spontaneously explain gender differences using a male norm and to attribute differences to females to the same degree. In our study, male and female authors of psychology articles focused their explanations on women to the same degree. Psychologists are not always aware of their implicit decisions about who to explain. "

Is the focus on women and girls a problem? Probably. Hegarty has shown in other research on sexual orientation differences that stereotype-relevant results are explained in ways that perpetuate stereotypes about the group that is not taken as the norm; lesbians and gay men, in that case. Hegarty and Buechel also found that psychologists vastly preferred the phrase ‘more than’ over ‘less than’ when explaining gender differences. Put this together with the male-norm effect and you could reach the absurd conclusion that women and girls have more psychology than men and boys do. Hegarty, a social psychologist himself, is optimistic about what the findings imply for the status of psychology.

“They clearly show an area where more critical thinking is needed about gender, but on the other hand psychological methods allowed us to bring this issue to light and to describe it. Our conclusion is not that psychologists should not study group differences, but that we serve the public better when we think deeply about the ways that we implicitly frame questions about whose behavior is the default standard norm and whose is made the subject of psychological scrutiny.”

Stuart Miller | alfa
Further information:
http://www.surrey.ac.uk
http://portal.surrey.ac.uk/portal/page?_pageid=799,1258756&_dad=portal&_schema=PORTAL

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Geographers provide new insight into commuter megaregions of the US
01.12.2016 | Dartmouth College

nachricht Sustainable Development Goals lead to lower population growth
30.11.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

Im Focus: Molecules change shape when wet

Broadband rotational spectroscopy unravels structural reshaping of isolated molecules in the gas phase to accommodate water

In two recent publications in the Journal of Chemical Physics and in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, researchers around Melanie Schnell from the Max...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

High-precision magnetic field sensing

05.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Construction of practical quantum computers radically simplified

05.12.2016 | Information Technology

NASA's AIM observes early noctilucent ice clouds over Antarctica

05.12.2016 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>