The history of immigration and football in Austria has been a little researched field until now, though it goes back a long way. Football migration was accelerated by the 1995 Bosman verdict of the European Court of Justice which led to the liberalisation of the transfer market, but it began long before. A project being conducted by the Vienna Institute for Development and Cooperation entitled "Migration in Austrian Football after 1945" is investigating the changes in Austrian professional football caused by player mobility.
The research team has compiled a complete set of data on foreign first division players and coaches at work in Austria during the period. This information has laid the groundwork for further project stages. These will involve biographical accounts of selected players' migration and career paths, a survey among current professional players, and an analysis of media discourse on representation and identity in Austrian football. Some general trends are already apparent.
The data compiled shows that player mobility has partly reflected broader waves of migration. In the words of project member Georg Spitaler: "At the start of the nineties increased numbers of migrants began arriving from Eastern Europe, but this was soon followed by immigration from an ever wider spectrum of countries. These two trends also left their mark on football. On top of them came the Bosman verdict which led to the deregulation and Europeanisation of the football labour market. The net result is that players from every continent of the globe now figure on Austrian team sheets."
Yet even before the nineties, Austrian teams almost always included migrants. The project data, which goes back to the fifties, provides preliminary indications of the foreign players' origins. For instance after 1956 some players came from Hungary to Austria corresponding to the refugees that fled to Austria, later on many players originated from Yugoslavia.
Integration and Discrimination
As the number of foreign players in Austria grew they often became the focus of heated debates, as the media research reveals. Commenting on this, Georg Spitaler's colleague Barbara Liegl said: "Particularly at the start of the sixties, there were bitter complaints in the sporting press of an alleged foreign invasion. In the eighties, when many Austrian footballers went to major European clubs, the foreign players evidently got a more friendly reception." These shifting media responses to foreign players will now be more closely investigated using the database and conducting a media analysis.
The number of foreign players has risen by about 40 percent since the nineties, and there are once again frequent discussions of fans’ inability to identify with "foreign dominated" teams. A consequence of this controversy was the "gentlemen's agreement" reached by first division clubs during the 2001/2002 season, under which a quota of home-grown players had to be met in every game.
The biographical work that forms part of the project also aims to revive memories of forgotten foreign players. For instance, few remember Saleh Selim - the first African footballer in Austria after 1945 - though he was one of the best known sportsmen in his home country, Egypt. The FWF project is keeping its eye on the ball, and the team will deliver final results in good time for the 2008 European Championship, due to be staged in Austria.
Till C. Jelitto | alfa
New population data provide insight on aging, migration
31.08.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)
PRB projects world population rising 33 percent by 2050 to nearly 10 billion
25.08.2016 | Population Reference Bureau
Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs. Two-photon sources are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape.
So-called monolayers are at the heart of the research activities. These "super materials" (as the prestigious science magazine "Nature" puts it) have been...
Ultrafast lasers have introduced new possibilities in engraving ultrafine structures, and scientists are now also investigating how to use them to etch microstructures into thin glass. There are possible applications in analytics (lab on a chip) and especially in electronics and the consumer sector, where great interest has been shown.
This new method was born of a surprising phenomenon: irradiating glass in a particular way with an ultrafast laser has the effect of making the glass up to a...
Terahertz excitation of selected crystal vibrations leads to an effective magnetic field that drives coherent spin motion
Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how...
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.
"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...
In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.
A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...
14.10.2016 | Event News
14.10.2016 | Event News
12.10.2016 | Event News
28.10.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering
28.10.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
28.10.2016 | Life Sciences