Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Homeless young people warn researchers about the dangers of cash incentives

06.06.2006


Homeless people in their teens and early 20s are happy to take part in health research projects, but feel that being offered large financial incentives to participate can be harmful, according to a study in the latest UK-based Journal of Advanced Nursing.



Dr Josephine Ensign from the University of Washington’s School of Nursing explored the attitudes of young homeless people - who are increasingly being recognised as medically vulnerable members of the community - through individual interviews and focus groups.

She discovered that although the majority of the 43 study participants were happy to receive small incentives to take part in research, they felt that useful items worth up to $10 dollars were sufficient.


One male participant recalled how some homeless street youngsters he knew were given $60 to take part in a study –one used the money for heroin and almost died as a result.

He reflected the popular view that phone cards, coffee vouchers or useful items like backpacks and clothes were much more appropriate. “Things we need and that won’t hurt us” he stressed.

“This is an important finding” says Dr Ensign. “Most of the young people we spoke to were keen to take part in research, but felt that monetary incentives of more than $5 to $10 could be coercive and harmful to young people, especially if they were substance abusers.

“There are international guidelines that state that research remuneration should not be so high that it is coercive, but there are no clear guidelines as to what that level is. It is down to researchers to make value judgements based on the individual project and the study participants involved.

“In the case of this study, which looked at the attitudes of 15 to 23 year-olds, we felt that giving each person who took part a $10 phone card and providing refreshments was appropriate for us and acceptable to them. Feedback from staff who helped us recruit the homeless young people indicated that they believe they would have been happy to take part even without these small incentives.”

The young homeless people featured in the study were also keen to get involved in how research studies were designed and to know more about how their contribution would be used.

“I’m not really sure what happens to what we give them after they’re finished” said a 20-year-old girl, whose view was shared by many who took part in the study. “I’ve heard it gets written up somewhere, but I’ve never seen it. What do they do with it anyway?”

They also thought that they should be able to take part in research without needing consent from their parent or guardian.

As one 16-year-old said: “If we’re out there taking care of ourselves and our parents don’t really have anything to say about our lives anymore, then we should be able to say what we want to do, including research.”

Surveys that relied on form-filling were also unpopular and young homeless people preferred to speak to researchers. They talked about forms with complex terms and long words and said they didn’t have the patience to answer a large number of questions on paper. They also disliked long consent forms and often asked researchers to summarise them verbally for them.

“I’d rather someone asked me the questions and not make me read a lot of words” was one representative comment.

“This finding did not surprise us as most homeless young people in the USA have had their formal schooling interrupted by multiple foster care placements or other physical moves and many have lower reading abilities” says Dr Ensign, associate professor of psychosocial and community health.

Most of the 30 young people who took part in the individual interviews and the 13 who got involved in focus group discussions felt that their past experience of research had, on the whole, been positive.

But they felt that if researchers involved them more in the design of surveys, offering sensible incentives and providing feedback at the end of the study, it would encourage greater participation.

“Most research studies on youth homelessness appear as either articles in academic journals or government planning documents, so it’s not surprising that young people don’t see how their contribution is used” points out Dr Ensign.

“We are keen to see researchers share their findings with young people in an informal way, so that they can see how valued their views are.

“For example we have been working with a former homeless youth who is writing an article on our study for Mockingbird Times, a Seattle-based newspaper aimed at young people who are homeless or in foster care. It is also widely read by the people who look after them, which is equally important. “

There is a growing body of research documenting the multiple physical, mental health and social health needs of homeless young people, says Dr Ensign.

“Including homeless people in health research projects is very important as life on the streets often includes substance misuse, survival sex, exposure to violence and lack of basic hygiene and healthcare.

“Young homeless people can be particularly vulnerable and bad experiences can often make them highly distrustful of adults and institutions.

“We hope that our study will help other researchers develop ethical guidelines for research projects with homeless young people. This will enable healthcare professionals to develop services that meet their needs in a sensitive, effective and appropriate way.”

Annette Whibley | alfa
Further information:
http://www.blackwellpublishing.com
http://www.journalofadvancednursing.com

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Internet use in class tied to lower test scores
16.12.2016 | Michigan State University

nachricht Geographers provide new insight into commuter megaregions of the US
01.12.2016 | Dartmouth College

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

Im Focus: Bacterial Pac Man molecule snaps at sugar

Many pathogens use certain sugar compounds from their host to help conceal themselves against the immune system. Scientists at the University of Bonn have now, in cooperation with researchers at the University of York in the United Kingdom, analyzed the dynamics of a bacterial molecule that is involved in this process. They demonstrate that the protein grabs onto the sugar molecule with a Pac Man-like chewing motion and holds it until it can be used. Their results could help design therapeutics that could make the protein poorer at grabbing and holding and hence compromise the pathogen in the host. The study has now been published in “Biophysical Journal”.

The cells of the mouth, nose and intestinal mucosa produce large quantities of a chemical called sialic acid. Many bacteria possess a special transport system...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Water - as the underlying driver of the Earth’s carbon cycle

17.01.2017 | Earth Sciences

Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

17.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Smart homes will “LISTEN” to your voice

17.01.2017 | Architecture and Construction

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>