Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Society And Marriage – What Are Global Changes?

28.10.2005


Specialists of the Institute of Comprehensive Social Studies (Modern University for the Humanities) have carried out detailed analysis of changes in the matrimonial relations structure in the world since 1950 to 2000. The researchers considered four types of matrimonial relations: monogamy (one man – one woman) and three types of polygamy - polygyny (one man – several women), polyandry (one woman - several men) and polygyandry (several women – several men). The fifth type of reproductive relations - promiscuity, i.e. lack of permanent conjugal units between sexual partners - was not taken into account.



As for monogamy, it can be complete (men and women have only one partner during the entire life span) and serial when men and women enter new monogamous marriages after divorce. As compared to animals, monogamy is to a larger extent biologically tied up with human beings, this being explained by the necessity of joint upbringing of children for a long period. Nevertheless, only 30 percent of human communities are monogamous.

For analysis, the researchers used information from the International Database of US Census Bureau across 160 countries about which the most complete data was available since 1950 through 2000. The following trends were discovered.


On a global scale, both the share of married women and that of married men are decreasing with time. The percentage of married women on average remains 1.1 percent higher than that of married men, which means that polygyny (polygamy) is preserved in some countries.

Concurrently with decrease of percentage of married persons, the share of divorced women and men is growing. However, the share of divorced women grows quicker, which means that divorced men re-marry more frequently, than divorced women do. The share of single women and men (who did not get married) is also growing, but the number of single men is by 4.4 percent higher than that of women. One of the reasons is lower disposition to marriage of part of men as compared to that of women.

These global trends show up at a different extent in various parts of the world.

In Europe, shares of married women and men are decreasing and are practically equal, which indicates the lack of polygyny. The share of divorced women is growing faster than that of divorced men. The share of single women does not increase significantly, whereas the share of single men increased by 3.8 percent.

In Asia, percentage of married women and men is decreasing, but the main contribution to this decrease is made by the Moslem countries (the share in these countries decreased by approximately 5 percent), which contradicts to a common opinion about strong conservatism of the Moslem communities. On the contrary, non-Moslem countries (Hindu, Shinto, Christian) are conservative as regards to marriage – the share of married people in them is decreasing statistically insignificantly as opposed to the global trend. The excess of married women share over that of married men (the sign of polygyny) is mainly introduced by the Moslem countries, where the excess makes 1 percent. The number of divorces in Asiatic countries is growing insignificantly. The share of single men is not changing significantly, and the share of single women increased by 3 percent.

In Africa, there was a heavy decrease in the share of married women (approximately, by 9 percent) and that of married men (by 8 percent), but excess of married women share over that of married men (by 4.7 percent) does not change significantly in the course of time, indicating polygamy that is widespread in Africa. The share of divorces in Africa does not change, but the share of single women and men grows rather heavily: by 9 percent and 7 percent, respectively.

As for America, the general tendencies are preserved in the USA and Canada, but in the countries with predominantly Indian population the share of married women and men is growing essentially (by 6 percent for both men and women). The share of divorced persons is decreasing accordingly.

Thus, although in various regions these ratios differ, the general trends are usually preserved. Moreover, the authors point out evident converging of marriage structure of the society in different parts of the world, i.e. a kind of “globalization” of marriage relations.

The ratio of married women share and that of married men, indicating polygyny, is steadily going down all over the world, except for Africa, where polygamy is as common as it used to be half a century ago.

However, divorces and remarriages (the percentage of which is growing steadily) convert strict monogamy into serial one, which can be considered as implicit polygyandry, as former spouses, tied by the care about their common children, keep contacts with each other, i.e. they become members of expanded polygyandric family.

The authors of the research hope that the effort performed will serve a starting point for further investigations, first of all, for study of marriage structure change tendencies in the Russian society.

Sergey Komarov | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Amazingly flexible: Learning to read in your thirties profoundly transforms the brain
26.05.2017 | Max-Planck-Institut für Kognitions- und Neurowissenschaften

nachricht Fixating on faces
26.01.2017 | California Institute of Technology

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>