Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Society And Marriage – What Are Global Changes?

28.10.2005


Specialists of the Institute of Comprehensive Social Studies (Modern University for the Humanities) have carried out detailed analysis of changes in the matrimonial relations structure in the world since 1950 to 2000. The researchers considered four types of matrimonial relations: monogamy (one man – one woman) and three types of polygamy - polygyny (one man – several women), polyandry (one woman - several men) and polygyandry (several women – several men). The fifth type of reproductive relations - promiscuity, i.e. lack of permanent conjugal units between sexual partners - was not taken into account.



As for monogamy, it can be complete (men and women have only one partner during the entire life span) and serial when men and women enter new monogamous marriages after divorce. As compared to animals, monogamy is to a larger extent biologically tied up with human beings, this being explained by the necessity of joint upbringing of children for a long period. Nevertheless, only 30 percent of human communities are monogamous.

For analysis, the researchers used information from the International Database of US Census Bureau across 160 countries about which the most complete data was available since 1950 through 2000. The following trends were discovered.


On a global scale, both the share of married women and that of married men are decreasing with time. The percentage of married women on average remains 1.1 percent higher than that of married men, which means that polygyny (polygamy) is preserved in some countries.

Concurrently with decrease of percentage of married persons, the share of divorced women and men is growing. However, the share of divorced women grows quicker, which means that divorced men re-marry more frequently, than divorced women do. The share of single women and men (who did not get married) is also growing, but the number of single men is by 4.4 percent higher than that of women. One of the reasons is lower disposition to marriage of part of men as compared to that of women.

These global trends show up at a different extent in various parts of the world.

In Europe, shares of married women and men are decreasing and are practically equal, which indicates the lack of polygyny. The share of divorced women is growing faster than that of divorced men. The share of single women does not increase significantly, whereas the share of single men increased by 3.8 percent.

In Asia, percentage of married women and men is decreasing, but the main contribution to this decrease is made by the Moslem countries (the share in these countries decreased by approximately 5 percent), which contradicts to a common opinion about strong conservatism of the Moslem communities. On the contrary, non-Moslem countries (Hindu, Shinto, Christian) are conservative as regards to marriage – the share of married people in them is decreasing statistically insignificantly as opposed to the global trend. The excess of married women share over that of married men (the sign of polygyny) is mainly introduced by the Moslem countries, where the excess makes 1 percent. The number of divorces in Asiatic countries is growing insignificantly. The share of single men is not changing significantly, and the share of single women increased by 3 percent.

In Africa, there was a heavy decrease in the share of married women (approximately, by 9 percent) and that of married men (by 8 percent), but excess of married women share over that of married men (by 4.7 percent) does not change significantly in the course of time, indicating polygamy that is widespread in Africa. The share of divorces in Africa does not change, but the share of single women and men grows rather heavily: by 9 percent and 7 percent, respectively.

As for America, the general tendencies are preserved in the USA and Canada, but in the countries with predominantly Indian population the share of married women and men is growing essentially (by 6 percent for both men and women). The share of divorced persons is decreasing accordingly.

Thus, although in various regions these ratios differ, the general trends are usually preserved. Moreover, the authors point out evident converging of marriage structure of the society in different parts of the world, i.e. a kind of “globalization” of marriage relations.

The ratio of married women share and that of married men, indicating polygyny, is steadily going down all over the world, except for Africa, where polygamy is as common as it used to be half a century ago.

However, divorces and remarriages (the percentage of which is growing steadily) convert strict monogamy into serial one, which can be considered as implicit polygyandry, as former spouses, tied by the care about their common children, keep contacts with each other, i.e. they become members of expanded polygyandric family.

The authors of the research hope that the effort performed will serve a starting point for further investigations, first of all, for study of marriage structure change tendencies in the Russian society.

Sergey Komarov | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Fixating on faces
26.01.2017 | California Institute of Technology

nachricht Internet use in class tied to lower test scores
16.12.2016 | Michigan State University

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

Im Focus: Three Magnetic States for Each Hole

Nanometer-scale magnetic perforated grids could create new possibilities for computing. Together with international colleagues, scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. In addition they discovered that for every hole ("antidot") three magnetic states can be configured. The results have been published in the journal "Scientific Reports".

Physicist Dr. Rantej Bali from the HZDR, together with scientists from Singapore and Australia, designed a special grid structure in a thin layer of cobalt in...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Stingless bees have their nests protected by soldiers

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

New risk factors for anxiety disorders

24.02.2017 | Life Sciences

MWC 2017: 5G Capital Berlin

24.02.2017 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>