Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Social Disparity - How It Is Perceived

29.03.2005


Responses to the following questions: “How legitimate are in citizens’ opinion the methods of income distribution in the society? To what extent is the existing disparity justified in public opinion?” are given by recently published findings of the international surveys conducted in 25 countries of the world.



The first group of questions related to income differences, hostility between the rich and the poor, and the concept that big income differences are needed for the country’s prosperity. Investigated countries are naturally divided into capitalist ones (USA, Norway, Great Britain, etc.), where 20 to 30 percent of respondents consider income differences to be too high, and the countries with transition economy (from the territory of Eastern Germany through Russia), where 44 to 82 percent of population share the same point of view.

Japan is located “en route”, as 36 percent of the population share the same opinion, and among the countries with transition economy, Eastern Germany and Poland are located on the one side (closer to capitalists), and Bulgaria and Russia are on the other side. The conflict between the rich and the poor and comprehension of the necessity in income differences are arranged in a more complicated manner.


For example, the Norwegians, Czechs and Japanese believe that hostility is relatively low, and the Hungarians, Russians and Letts estimate it to be high. However, it is unclear if hostility is really high or “tolerance” of it is low. Capitalist thinking is peculiar to the Germans, Japanese, Americans and Poles who assume that income differences are needed. The Slovenes, Hungarians, Bulgarians and Russians are closer to the opposite position.

The second group of questions dealt with promotion in social career. The major importance for promotion belongs, in the opinion of the Bulgarians, Poles, Slovenes and Eastern Germans, to ties and relationship, and in the Russians’ opinion – to bribes. The last answer is perfectly expected, in this regard the Russians significantly overpass all others (naturally, Bulgaria is the closest to the Russia’s position).

Russia dominates in the share of those countries that believe that labor is not properly appreciated – in Russia this share makes 45 percent. The closest position in this area is occupied by the Poles (37 percent), and the farthest position is taken by the Norwegians, British, Czechs and Eastern Germans (8 to 12 percent). Reaction to differences may be dissimilar: some may believe that they are guilty themselves, and some may blame the state.

The highest share of citizens who believe that the state must decrease income differences is gained in Russia (59 percent) and Bulgaria (56 percent), and the lowest share is in the USA and Western Germany (10 to 12 percent).

However, the following is curious: in Great Britain, USA, Russia and Latvia, the majority of citizens agree that the people with higher income can use better medical services and provide better education for their children (25 to 40 percent). That is, the Russians assume that they have undeservedly little money, but they apparently hope that some time in the future they will have more money and then they will spend the money sensibly – on healthcare and education. In contrast to the comrades from the former socialist camp – the Hungarians, Eastern Germans and Czechs –who seem to have lost the hope already.

Sergey Komarov | alfa
Further information:
http://www.informnauka.ru

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Internet use in class tied to lower test scores
16.12.2016 | Michigan State University

nachricht Geographers provide new insight into commuter megaregions of the US
01.12.2016 | Dartmouth College

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: How gut bacteria can make us ill

HZI researchers decipher infection mechanisms of Yersinia and immune responses of the host

Yersiniae cause severe intestinal infections. Studies using Yersinia pseudotuberculosis as a model organism aim to elucidate the infection mechanisms of these...

Im Focus: Interfacial Superconductivity: Magnetic and superconducting order revealed simultaneously

Researchers from the University of Hamburg in Germany, in collaboration with colleagues from the University of Aarhus in Denmark, have synthesized a new superconducting material by growing a few layers of an antiferromagnetic transition-metal chalcogenide on a bismuth-based topological insulator, both being non-superconducting materials.

While superconductivity and magnetism are generally believed to be mutually exclusive, surprisingly, in this new material, superconducting correlations...

Im Focus: Studying fundamental particles in materials

Laser-driving of semimetals allows creating novel quasiparticle states within condensed matter systems and switching between different states on ultrafast time scales

Studying properties of fundamental particles in condensed matter systems is a promising approach to quantum field theory. Quasiparticles offer the opportunity...

Im Focus: Designing Architecture with Solar Building Envelopes

Among the general public, solar thermal energy is currently associated with dark blue, rectangular collectors on building roofs. Technologies are needed for aesthetically high quality architecture which offer the architect more room for manoeuvre when it comes to low- and plus-energy buildings. With the “ArKol” project, researchers at Fraunhofer ISE together with partners are currently developing two façade collectors for solar thermal energy generation, which permit a high degree of design flexibility: a strip collector for opaque façade sections and a solar thermal blind for transparent sections. The current state of the two developments will be presented at the BAU 2017 trade fair.

As part of the “ArKol – development of architecturally highly integrated façade collectors with heat pipes” project, Fraunhofer ISE together with its partners...

Im Focus: How to inflate a hardened concrete shell with a weight of 80 t

At TU Wien, an alternative for resource intensive formwork for the construction of concrete domes was developed. It is now used in a test dome for the Austrian Federal Railways Infrastructure (ÖBB Infrastruktur).

Concrete shells are efficient structures, but not very resource efficient. The formwork for the construction of concrete domes alone requires a high amount of...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

12V, 48V, high-voltage – trends in E/E automotive architecture

10.01.2017 | Event News

2nd Conference on Non-Textual Information on 10 and 11 May 2017 in Hannover

09.01.2017 | Event News

Nothing will happen without batteries making it happen!

05.01.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A big nano boost for solar cells

18.01.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Glass's off-kilter harmonies

18.01.2017 | Materials Sciences

Toward a 'smart' patch that automatically delivers insulin when needed

18.01.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>