Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Social Disparity - How It Is Perceived


Responses to the following questions: “How legitimate are in citizens’ opinion the methods of income distribution in the society? To what extent is the existing disparity justified in public opinion?” are given by recently published findings of the international surveys conducted in 25 countries of the world.

The first group of questions related to income differences, hostility between the rich and the poor, and the concept that big income differences are needed for the country’s prosperity. Investigated countries are naturally divided into capitalist ones (USA, Norway, Great Britain, etc.), where 20 to 30 percent of respondents consider income differences to be too high, and the countries with transition economy (from the territory of Eastern Germany through Russia), where 44 to 82 percent of population share the same point of view.

Japan is located “en route”, as 36 percent of the population share the same opinion, and among the countries with transition economy, Eastern Germany and Poland are located on the one side (closer to capitalists), and Bulgaria and Russia are on the other side. The conflict between the rich and the poor and comprehension of the necessity in income differences are arranged in a more complicated manner.

For example, the Norwegians, Czechs and Japanese believe that hostility is relatively low, and the Hungarians, Russians and Letts estimate it to be high. However, it is unclear if hostility is really high or “tolerance” of it is low. Capitalist thinking is peculiar to the Germans, Japanese, Americans and Poles who assume that income differences are needed. The Slovenes, Hungarians, Bulgarians and Russians are closer to the opposite position.

The second group of questions dealt with promotion in social career. The major importance for promotion belongs, in the opinion of the Bulgarians, Poles, Slovenes and Eastern Germans, to ties and relationship, and in the Russians’ opinion – to bribes. The last answer is perfectly expected, in this regard the Russians significantly overpass all others (naturally, Bulgaria is the closest to the Russia’s position).

Russia dominates in the share of those countries that believe that labor is not properly appreciated – in Russia this share makes 45 percent. The closest position in this area is occupied by the Poles (37 percent), and the farthest position is taken by the Norwegians, British, Czechs and Eastern Germans (8 to 12 percent). Reaction to differences may be dissimilar: some may believe that they are guilty themselves, and some may blame the state.

The highest share of citizens who believe that the state must decrease income differences is gained in Russia (59 percent) and Bulgaria (56 percent), and the lowest share is in the USA and Western Germany (10 to 12 percent).

However, the following is curious: in Great Britain, USA, Russia and Latvia, the majority of citizens agree that the people with higher income can use better medical services and provide better education for their children (25 to 40 percent). That is, the Russians assume that they have undeservedly little money, but they apparently hope that some time in the future they will have more money and then they will spend the money sensibly – on healthcare and education. In contrast to the comrades from the former socialist camp – the Hungarians, Eastern Germans and Czechs –who seem to have lost the hope already.

Sergey Komarov | alfa
Further information:

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht New population data provide insight on aging, migration
31.08.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

nachricht PRB projects world population rising 33 percent by 2050 to nearly 10 billion
25.08.2016 | Population Reference Bureau

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer.

"The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses three-dimensional wires based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits," said Jeremy Béjanin, a PhD...

Im Focus: Scientists develop a semiconductor nanocomposite material that moves in response to light

In a paper in Scientific Reports, a research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute describes a novel light-activated phenomenon that could become the basis for applications as diverse as microscopic robotic grippers and more efficient solar cells.

A research team at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) has developed a revolutionary, light-activated semiconductor nanocomposite material that can be used...

Im Focus: Diamonds aren't forever: Sandia, Harvard team create first quantum computer bridge

By forcefully embedding two silicon atoms in a diamond matrix, Sandia researchers have demonstrated for the first time on a single chip all the components needed to create a quantum bridge to link quantum computers together.

"People have already built small quantum computers," says Sandia researcher Ryan Camacho. "Maybe the first useful one won't be a single giant quantum computer...

Im Focus: New Products - Highlights of COMPAMED 2016

COMPAMED has become the leading international marketplace for suppliers of medical manufacturing. The trade fair, which takes place every November and is co-located to MEDICA in Dusseldorf, has been steadily growing over the past years and shows that medical technology remains a rapidly growing market.

In 2016, the joint pavilion by the IVAM Microtechnology Network, the Product Market “High-tech for Medical Devices”, will be located in Hall 8a again and will...

Im Focus: Ultra-thin ferroelectric material for next-generation electronics

'Ferroelectric' materials can switch between different states of electrical polarization in response to an external electric field. This flexibility means they show promise for many applications, for example in electronic devices and computer memory. Current ferroelectric materials are highly valued for their thermal and chemical stability and rapid electro-mechanical responses, but creating a material that is scalable down to the tiny sizes needed for technologies like silicon-based semiconductors (Si-based CMOS) has proven challenging.

Now, Hiroshi Funakubo and co-workers at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, in collaboration with researchers across Japan, have conducted experiments to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

Agricultural Trade Developments and Potentials in Central Asia and the South Caucasus

14.10.2016 | Event News

World Health Summit – Day Three: A Call to Action

12.10.2016 | Event News

Latest News

Resolving the mystery of preeclampsia

21.10.2016 | Health and Medicine

Stanford researchers create new special-purpose computer that may someday save us billions

21.10.2016 | Information Technology

From ancient fossils to future cars

21.10.2016 | Materials Sciences

More VideoLinks >>>