Findings are bad news for women battling gender wage gap
Single men and women with college degrees are generally more likely to move to a big city to pursue job opportunities. Whether a married woman makes this potentially career-enhancing relocation depends largely on if her husband holds a college degree, suggests a study by economists at Washington University in St. Louis. "We are becoming more used to the idea of husbands as trailing spouses from newspaper and magazine articles. We all know couples who have moved for the wifes career," says Janice Compton, co-author of the study and a doctoral candidate in economics in Arts & Sciences at Washington University. "But our data show that migration is still overwhelmingly affected by the husbands and not the wifes education. That is, if he has a college degree they are more likely to move, and to move to the big city, regardless of her education."
The study, presented by Compton at the Jan. 7 Econometric Society meetings in Philadelphia, Pa., is co-authored by Robert A. Pollak, Ph.D., the Hernreich Distinguished Professor of Economics in Arts & Sciences and the Olin School of Business at Washington University. The findings offer less than encouraging news for the growing ranks of young professional women, at least in terms of pay equity. If a womans educational level still has little or no influence on a couples decision to relocate for career advancement, as this study suggests, then women can expect to see ongoing disparities in professional salaries. "The continued presence of trailing wives means that we should continue to see a wage gap between married women and married men, even among those with college degrees," Compton concludes. Using recently released data from the 2000 U.S. Census and the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics, the Washington University researchers tracked the job movements of thousands of young people over several decades, including detailed breakdowns by marital status.
The power couple puzzle
For much of the last three decades, demographers have observed steady growth of households in which both spouses have college degrees, noting with interest that these so-called power couples were becoming increasingly concentrated in the nations largest metropolitan areas.
Between 1970 and 1990 alone, the percentage of power couples living in the nations 25 largest cities increased from 39 percent to 50 percent. With more college-educated women entering the workforce, many expected this trend to continue.
In fact, the trend may have begun to reverse itself. Using data from the 2000 Census, Compton and Pollak found that the proportion of power couples residing in large metro areas actually dropped slightly between 1990 and 2000. The explanation for the changing concentration of power couples in large cities is elusive.
One theory suggests that power couples are relocating to the nations largest metro areas as a response to "co-location" pressure, a mutual desire to find one labor market large enough and diverse enough to satisfy the career aspirations of both spouses.
Re-examining this theory in the light of other data, Compton and Pollak found no evidence that the concentration of power couples in big cities could be directly attributed to the pressures of co-location.
Rather, their findings suggest that many big-city power couples are essentially homegrown — that all college-educated individuals (married and unmarried) are attracted to the amenities and high returns on education found in large cities.
Thus, rather than a result of migration, the concentration of power couples in large cities reflects two phenomenon: the formation of power couples either through the marriage of educated singles or through additional education of part-power couples. Both phenomenon are more likely to occur in larger rather than smaller metropolitan areas.
"This reversal of the earlier trend is difficult to explain in terms of co-location pressures but is easy to explain in terms of changes in marriage and educational attainment patterns observed in the data," Pollak says.
Gerry Everding | EurekAlert!
Illinois researchers researchers find tweeting in cities lower than expected
21.02.2018 | University of Illinois College of Engineering
Polluted air may pollute our morality
08.02.2018 | Association for Psychological Science
In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.
Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...
Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.
They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...
A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...
For the first time, an interdisciplinary team from the University of Basel has succeeded in integrating artificial organelles into the cells of live zebrafish embryos. This innovative approach using artificial organelles as cellular implants offers new potential in treating a range of diseases, as the authors report in an article published in Nature Communications.
In the cells of higher organisms, organelles such as the nucleus or mitochondria perform a range of complex functions necessary for life. In the networks of...
Animal photoreceptors capture light with photopigments. Researchers from the University of Göttingen have now discovered that these photopigments fulfill an...
19.03.2018 | Event News
16.03.2018 | Event News
13.03.2018 | Event News
21.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy
21.03.2018 | Materials Sciences
21.03.2018 | Life Sciences