Why men with high levels of anger and low anger control should not drink alcohol
- Trait anger is a tendency to experience frequent and intense episodes of anger.
- Individuals with high levels of trait anger, along with low levels of anger control, are likely to commit alcohol-related aggression.
- Researchers suggest these individuals refrain from alcohol consumption.
Despite its powerful pharmacological effects on the central nervous system, alcohol does not facilitate aggression in all persons or in all situations. Trait anger – a tendency to experience frequent and intense episodes of anger – has already been identified as a risk factor for alcohol-related aggression. Yet possessing high levels of trait anger does not necessarily guarantee that an intoxicated individual will become aggressive when provoked. A study in the June issue of Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research finds that a persons inability to control the outward expression of their anger plays a key role in alcohol-related aggression.
"Our previous research showed that men with high levels of trait anger are most at risk for becoming violent when they drink," said Peter R. Giancola, associate professor of psychology, director of the University of Kentucky Alcohol Research Laboratory, and corresponding author for the study. "This study adds to that by showing that the combination of high trait anger and low anger control even further increases your risk."
"This topic is exceedingly relevant as, generally, alcohol intoxication co-occurs with violence in approximately half of all rapes, murders and assaults, including family violence," added Robert O. Pihl, professor psychology and psychiatry at McGill University. "The significance of this correlation is typically ignored by society, possibly because the nature of the relationship remains argumentative. This study and others like it are slowly illuminating the mechanisms and vulnerabilities involved in the alcohol/aggression relationship."
Researchers examined 164 healthy male social drinkers (159 Caucasians, 5 African Americans) between the ages of 21 and 35 years who were recruited through local advertisements and paid for their participation. Trait anger and anger control were assessed with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory. Participants were given either an alcoholic (1g/kg alcohol) or a placebo beverage, and then participated in a laboratory aggression task.
Higher levels of trait anger were associated with increased aggression, but only among men who were intoxicated and also reported low levels of anger control.
"Most if not all individuals who drink and drink heavily do so without becoming violent," said Pihl. "Thus, the phenomenon invariably involves an alcohol effect, plus a specific type of situation, and the inability to deal with that situation. The Giancola paper suggests that the inability to control anger is an important factor in the equation. For individuals who fit the characteristics described by Giancola, drinking during emotionally provocative situations de facto is a license to aggress. Just like in the case of driving, this is a time these individuals should avoid alcohol. Further, these individuals might be wise to avail themselves of numerous intervention programs specifically designed to enhance anger control."
Giancola added "research indicates that alcohol increases aggression by reducing fear, increasing arousal, and impairing cognitive functioning. However, being in this disinhibited state does not mean that one will necessarily become aggressive," he said. "They might also become more talkative, jovial, or sexual." The over-arching aim of his entire research program, said Giancola, is to determine what factors are most important in increasing ones risk for intoxicated aggression.
"Once these risk factors are identified, we will attempt to prevent them in children," he said.
The most recent press releases about innovation >>>
Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:
Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.
As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...
Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...
For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.
While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...
An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.
The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...
A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.
Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...