Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Abstinence-plus programs for HIV prevention can reduce risk behaviour

23.01.2008
Programmes that aim to encourage sexual abstinence while also encouraging and teaching safer sex strategies for those who are sexually active can reduce short- and long-term HIV risk behaviour among young people in high-income countries, according to the findings of a new Cochrane Review.

HIV and AIDS are huge threats to human health. Each day in 2005 around 7,600 people died from HIV-related causes and a further 38.6 million people were living with the disease. Two million of these were living in the high-income countries of North America and Western and Central Europe. Estimates suggest that that year 4.1 million people contracted the virus.

Estimates also suggest that 70% of HIV-infected people stay sexually active, with a substantial proportion continuing to participate in unprotected sex. On top of this there is a rising prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhoea in many high-income countries around the world.

Abstinence-plus programmes start from the premise that sexual abstinence is the best way to prevent infection, but recognises that some people will continue to be sexually active and therefore also helps to enable safe and effective use of condoms. In addition to teaching condom skills, abstinence-plus programmes commonly teach about safer sex negotiation, communication with partners, and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.

Cochrane Researchers therefore looked for evidence that specifically identified the effectiveness of abstinence-plus programmes in high-income countries.

They found 39 studies involving over 37,000 North American young people. In 23 studies there was a significant increase in protective behaviour. None of the studies reported any adverse effects; contrary to criticisms against abstinence-plus programmes, participants did not become more sexually active after completing the interventions. Owing in part to limitations in measurement, the results were unable to show evidence that abstinence-plus programmes affected self-reported rates of sexually transmitted infections, or self-reported pregnancy incidence.

“In a previous Cochrane Review we concluded that abstinence-only programs have no effect in high-income countries, which makes the finding that abstinence-plus programs can influence behaviour even more striking,” says lead researcher Dr Don Operario who works at the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Oxford, UK. “This is an opportunity for the HIV prevention and public health communities to harness the potential benefits of comprehensive sexual health education such as abstinence-plus programmes.”

Jennifer Beal | alfa
Further information:
http://www.thecochranelibrary.com

More articles from Social Sciences:

nachricht Geographers provide new insight into commuter megaregions of the US
01.12.2016 | Dartmouth College

nachricht Sustainable Development Goals lead to lower population growth
30.11.2016 | International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA)

All articles from Social Sciences >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Simple processing technique could cut cost of organic PV and wearable electronics

06.12.2016 | Materials Sciences

3-D printed kidney phantoms aid nuclear medicine dosing calibration

06.12.2016 | Medical Engineering

Robot on demand: Mobile machining of aircraft components with high precision

06.12.2016 | Power and Electrical Engineering

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>