HIV and AIDS are huge threats to human health. Each day in 2005 around 7,600 people died from HIV-related causes and a further 38.6 million people were living with the disease. Two million of these were living in the high-income countries of North America and Western and Central Europe. Estimates suggest that that year 4.1 million people contracted the virus.
Estimates also suggest that 70% of HIV-infected people stay sexually active, with a substantial proportion continuing to participate in unprotected sex. On top of this there is a rising prevalence of other sexually transmitted infections including chlamydia and gonorrhoea in many high-income countries around the world.
Abstinence-plus programmes start from the premise that sexual abstinence is the best way to prevent infection, but recognises that some people will continue to be sexually active and therefore also helps to enable safe and effective use of condoms. In addition to teaching condom skills, abstinence-plus programmes commonly teach about safer sex negotiation, communication with partners, and transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections.
Cochrane Researchers therefore looked for evidence that specifically identified the effectiveness of abstinence-plus programmes in high-income countries.
They found 39 studies involving over 37,000 North American young people. In 23 studies there was a significant increase in protective behaviour. None of the studies reported any adverse effects; contrary to criticisms against abstinence-plus programmes, participants did not become more sexually active after completing the interventions. Owing in part to limitations in measurement, the results were unable to show evidence that abstinence-plus programmes affected self-reported rates of sexually transmitted infections, or self-reported pregnancy incidence.
“In a previous Cochrane Review we concluded that abstinence-only programs have no effect in high-income countries, which makes the finding that abstinence-plus programs can influence behaviour even more striking,” says lead researcher Dr Don Operario who works at the Department of Social Policy and Social Work at the University of Oxford, UK. “This is an opportunity for the HIV prevention and public health communities to harness the potential benefits of comprehensive sexual health education such as abstinence-plus programmes.”
Jennifer Beal | alfa
Fixating on faces
26.01.2017 | California Institute of Technology
Internet use in class tied to lower test scores
16.12.2016 | Michigan State University
On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.
On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...
Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...
The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.
The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...
Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...
13.02.2017 | Event News
10.02.2017 | Event News
09.02.2017 | Event News
27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences
27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research
27.02.2017 | Life Sciences