Reading is a standard day-to-day activity of a modern human being. It includes three components: sensoric (perception of visual stimulus – letters and other characters), motoric (eyes’ movements) and cognitive (attention, memory, and character and word recognition). The reading process requires quick eye movements - saccades, which move the eyes quickly from one text fragment to another. Only the retina’s central part, which contains cones, is capable of recognizing objects (characters). This dictates the necessity of quick eyes’ movements to project each successive text fragment exactly to the retina’s central part. To recognize objects it is necessary to fix the glance and the eye stays static for 100-200 ms. Then follows another saccade and another fixation.
The video-oculographic system determines eye coordinates based on the analysis of the infra-red light reflected from the surface of different parts of the eyeball. It is the position of the darker pupil in the infra-red light that coincides with the eye coordinates.
The research was aimed at studying the effect of the text’s properties on the parameters of eye movements in the process of reading such texts. For this purpose, the testees – students aged 19 to 23 years, were asked to read four text fragments on the monitor screen, their line length being 83, 62, 40 and 30 characters (font: Arial 16) with a single line spacing, and then - four text fragments with the same line length and 1.5 line spacing. All fragments represented an educational text on psychology. The testees were instructed to read the text to the end at an arbitrary speed. In another research the testees were offered text fragments typed in small-size (Arial 9) and large-size (Arial 16) fonts.
Sergey Komarov | alfa
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New Master’s programme: University of Kaiserslautern educates experts in quantum technology
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Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
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Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
An Australian-Chinese research team has created the world's thinnest hologram, paving the way towards the integration of 3D holography into everyday...
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23.05.2017 | Event News
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26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Life Sciences
26.05.2017 | Physics and Astronomy