Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

3D characterization of powder gas stream improves process quality in laser material deposition

26.04.2012
For the first time, scientists at the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT have succeeded in performing qualitative and quantitative characterization of the powder gas stream in laser deposition welding.
The powder gas feed is an important parameter of the overall process and plays a key role in the results achieved. Precise knowledge of the powder gas stream is therefore necessary to maintain process quality.

Laser material deposition has become an established processing technique for the repair and manufacture of metal parts and the functionalization of metal surfaces. A nozzle is used to inject a powdered filler material into the melt generated by the laser beam. This produces a layer which is metallurgically bonded to the workpiece. The delivery of powder to the melt pool via the nozzle is a crucial element in this process. It has a major influence on the consumption of powder material, the effectiveness of the gas shielding system used to prevent oxidation, and the quality of the coating layer. In order to ensure consistently high process stability and quality, it is necessary to check the processing results at regular intervals.
This is because nozzle wear can lead to deviations that cause changes in the diameter and position of the powder focus. Orientation of the powder gas stream to the laser beam is of major importance. Until now, the only way of determining these changes was to use laser metal deposition to obtain reference samples. Correlating these samples with comparative deposited welds revealed the quality of the nozzle.

A simpler method of checking nozzle quality

A team from the Fraunhofer ILT has now developed a measurement procedure for characterizing the powder gas stream which provides a simple and reproducible means of checking nozzle quality. The process involves illuminating the powder gas stream from the side with a laser beam and using a camera positioned coaxially to the nozzle to capture images of the powder gas stream through the nozzle. This makes the ring-shaped distribution of the powder visible. Thanks to the camera's high frame rate, it is possible to precisely determine the number and position of individual powder particles at a defined point in time. Based on similar principles to laser caustic measurement, the lateral laser beam moves down the powder gas stream layer by layer, requiring just a few seconds to capture the data for each layer. The system then calculates the particle density distribution for each layer from the several thousand individual images captured by the camera. Finally, the individual layer images are superimposed on each other to yield the overall spatial particle density distribution. “For the first time, we have succeeded in developing a measuring procedure that enables us to determine the constancy of the powder mass flow, the symmetry of the powder gas stream, and the position and size of the powder focus,” says Stefan Mann, who is in charge of the project at the Fraunhofer ILT. Potential applications of this new measuring technique include all activities in the field of laser deposition welding, in particular engine and power plant manufacturing, toolmaking and mechanical engineering.
Live demonstration of the measuring process

A demonstration of this measuring procedure will be held in the Fraunhofer ILT’s laser equipment facility in Aachen on May 11 as part of the “Laser Technology Live” event at the International Laser Technology Congress AKL’12. To find out more, please visit www.lasercongress.org

Your contacts at Fraunhofer ILT
Our experts are on hand to answer your questions:

Dip.-Ing. Stefan Mann
Process Control and System Technology
Phone +49 241 8906-321
stefan.mann@ilt.fraunhofer.de

Dipl.-Ing. Peter Abels
Head of Process Control and System Technology
Phone +49 241 8906-428
peter.abels@ilt.fraunhofer.de

Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT
Steinbachstrasse 15
52074 Aachen
Phone +49 241 8906-0
Fax +49 241 8906-121

Axel Bauer | Fraunhofer-Institut
Further information:
http://www.ilt.fraunhofer.de

More articles from Process Engineering:

nachricht Diamond watch components
18.06.2018 | Schweizerischer Nationalfonds SNF

nachricht Quick and safe laser joining of steel-aluminum mixed connections
05.06.2018 | Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V.

All articles from Process Engineering >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Temperature-controlled fiber-optic light source with liquid core

In a recent publication in the renowned journal Optica, scientists of Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology (Leibniz IPHT) in Jena showed that they can accurately control the optical properties of liquid-core fiber lasers and therefore their spectral band width by temperature and pressure tuning.

Already last year, the researchers provided experimental proof of a new dynamic of hybrid solitons– temporally and spectrally stationary light waves resulting...

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Creating a new composite fuel for new-generation fast reactors

20.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Game-changing finding pushes 3D-printing to the molecular limit

20.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

Could this material enable autonomous vehicles to come to market sooner?

20.06.2018 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>