Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

X-ray optics on a chip

19.08.2016

Waveguides are widely used for filtering, confining, guiding, coupling or splitting beams of visible light. However, creating waveguides that could do the same for X-rays has posed tremendous challenges in fabrication, so they are still only in an early stage of development.

In the latest issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances , Sarah Hoffmann-Urlaub and Tim Salditt report the fabrication and testing of a millimetre-sized chip capable of splitting a beam of X-rays [Acta Cryst. (2016), A72, doi:10.1107/S205327331601144X].


Dashed lines mark the channel boundaries and the enlarged part displays the region where the wave is coupled in. The intensity is normalized and plotted in logarithmic scaling.

Credit: Hoffmann-Urlaub and Salditt

Fork-shaped channels that are only a few tens of nanometres wide and deep are transferred into a silicon wafer using electron-beam lithography and reactive ion etching then enclosed by bonding a second silicon wafer on top.

The results of simulations of how the 'parent' beam is split into two 'daughter' beams on passing through the chip were backed up by experimental measurements at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, showing that the incident beam is efficiently transported through the chip, neatly split and guided to exits that have precisely controlled (and tunable) spacings.

After the daughter beams leave the chip, they interfere, leading to a pattern of vertical stripes just like the pattern obtained from a classical Young's double-slit interference experiment. Interestingly, on close inspection there are fork-like structures within the stripes that originate from discontinuities in the phase of the recombined beam, forming striking features known as phase vortices.

Furthermore, from those interference patterns the intensity distribution in the exit plane of the channels is reconstructed, which is found to be in very good agreement to the actual channel design.

This study complements earlier work on two-dimensionally confined channels in silicon in straight and tapered geometries, and paves the way to realizing `X-ray optics on a chip'. Illumination of samples by the two beams could provide some interesting advantages for coherent imaging and opens up the possibility of a new form of nano-interferometer.

The authors envisage future development of their beamsplitter to create several daughter beams from the same parent beam, which would allow a single object to be imaged simultaneously by several beams, each from a different direction.

Media Contact

Dr. Jonathan Agbenyega
ja@iucr.org
44-124-434-2878

 @iucr

http://www.iucr.org 

Dr. Jonathan Agbenyega | EurekAlert!

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht New NASA study improves search for habitable worlds
20.10.2017 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht Physics boosts artificial intelligence methods
19.10.2017 | California Institute of Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Terahertz spectroscopy goes nano

20.10.2017 | Information Technology

Strange but true: Turning a material upside down can sometimes make it softer

20.10.2017 | Materials Sciences

NRL clarifies valley polarization for electronic and optoelectronic technologies

20.10.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>