First ever sighting of galaxy core formation
Astronomers have uncovered for the first time the earliest stages of a massive galaxy forming in the young Universe. The discovery was made possible through combining observations from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, and the W.M. Keck Observatory in Hawaii. The growing galaxy core is blazing with the light of millions of newborn stars that are forming at a ferocious rate. The paper appears in the journal Nature on 27 August.
Elliptical galaxies are large, gas-poor gatherings of older stars and are one of the main types of galaxy along with their spiral and lenticular relatives. Galaxy formation theories suggest that giant elliptical galaxies form from the inside out, with a large core marking the very first stages of formation.
However, evidence of this early construction phase has eluded astronomers — until now.
Astronomers have now spotted a compact galactic core known as GOODS-N-774, and nicknamed Sparky . It is seen as it appeared eleven billion years ago, just three billion years after the Big Bang.
"This core formation process is a phenomenon unique to the early Universe," explains Erica Nelson of Yale University, USA, lead author of the science paper announcing the results, "we do not see galaxies forming in this way any more. There's something about the Universe at that time that could form galaxies in this way that it now can't. We suspect that the Universe could produce denser objects because the Universe as a whole was denser shortly after the Big Bang. It is much less dense now, so it can't do it anymore."
Although only a fraction of the size of the Milky Way, the infant galaxy is crammed with so many young stars that it already contains twice as much mass as our entire galaxy. It is thought that the fledgling galaxy will continue to grow, eventually becoming a giant elliptical galaxy. The astronomers think that this barely visible galaxy may be representative of a much larger population of similar objects that are too faint or obscured by dust to be spotted — just like the Sun can appear red and faint behind the smoke of a forest fire.
Alongside determining the galaxy's size from the Hubble images, the team dug into archival far-infrared images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope and the ESA Herschel Space Observatory to see how fast the compact galaxy is churning out stars. GOODS-N-774 is producing 300 stars per year. "By comparison, the Milky Way produces thirty times fewer than this — roughly ten stars per year,"  says Marijn Franx of Leiden University in the Netherlands, a co-author of the study. "This star-forming rate is really intense!"
This tiny powerhouse contains about twice as many stars as our galaxy, all crammed into a region only 6000 light-years across. The Milky Way is about 100 000 light-years across.
Astronomers believe that this frenzied star formation occurs because the galactic centre is forming deep inside a gravitational well of dark matter, an invisible form of matter that makes up the scaffolding upon which galaxies formed in the early Universe. A torrent of gas is flowing into the well and into the compact galaxy, sparking waves of star birth.
"They're very extreme environments," said Nelson. "It's like a medieval cauldron forging stars. There's a lot of turbulence, and it's bubbling. If you were in there, the night sky would be bright with young stars, and there would be a lot of dust, gas, and remnants of exploding stars. To actually see this happening is fascinating."
The sheer amount of gas and dust within an extreme star-forming region like this may explain why they have eluded astronomers until now. Bursts of star formation create dust, which builds up within the forming core and can block some starlight  — GOODS-N-774 was only just visible, even using the resolution and infrared capabilities of Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3.
"This galaxy seems to have been furiously forming stars for more than a billion years," adds Franx. "We have spotted it very early on in its life. Shortly after the time period we're looking at, we think that this core will have stopped forming stars, and that smaller galaxies will have merged with it over the next 10 billion years until it expanded and grew outwards in size. It would resemble one of the mammoth, sedate ellipticals we see today."
"We had been searching for this galaxy for years, and it's very exciting that we finally found it", says Dokkum, "The big challenge is to understand the physics driving the formation of such objects. The James Webb Space Telescope, Hubble's successor, will be able to help us find an answer."
 The astronomers found the galaxy while poring over WFC3 images of thousands of galaxies catalogued in two large Hubble surveys of the distant Universe: 3D-HST and the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS). They then used instruments at the W.M. Keck Observatory to measure the galaxy's distance from Earth, and to detect how fast the gas was moving, which confirmed its massive structure.
 Not all stars are the same mass as our Sun. The approximately 10 stars per year formed in the Milky Way will generally be less massive than our Sun.
 The dust build up in the compact galaxy obscures and reddens ultraviolet light from infant stars. The dust is absorbing and re-radiating that light as infrared light.
The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.
The science paper announcing the results will appear in the journal Nature on 27 August 2014. The international team of astronomers in this study consists of E. Nelson (Yale University, USA), P. van Dokkum (Yale University, USA), M. Franx (Leiden University, The Netherlands), G. Brammer (STScI, USA), I. Momcheva (Yale University, USA), N. M. Forster Schreiber (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany), E. da Cunha (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), L. Tacconi (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany), R. Bezanson (University of Arizona, USA), A. Kirkpatrick (University of Massachusetts, USA), J. Leja (Yale University, USA), H-W. Rix (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), R. Skelton (SAAO, South Africa), A. van der Wel (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Heidelberg, Germany), K. Whitaker (Goddard Space Center, USA), and S. Wuyts (Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching, Germany).
New Haven, Connecticut, USA
Leiden University, The Netherlands
Tel: +31 71 527 5870
Pieter van Dokkum
New Haven, Connecticut, USA
ESA/Hubble, Public Information Officer
Garching bei München, Germany
Tel: +44 7816 291261
Georgia Bladon | ESA/Hubble Media Newsletter
Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials
21.09.2016 | Universität Basel
Magnetic polaron imaged for the first time
19.09.2016 | Aalto University
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.
In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...
Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.
K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...
23.09.2016 | Event News
20.09.2016 | Event News
16.09.2016 | Event News
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences
23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences