On March 13, it was announced the most vigorous bursts of star birth in the cosmos took place much earlier than previously thought - results now published in a set of papers in Nature and the Astrophysical Journal.
As these findings are published, three of the scientists at the forefront of this research - including the lead researcher of the latest findings – offered their insights about what this reveals about the history of our universe, and how the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) is providing a "zoom lens" into the early universe.
This includes their surprise at finding so many star-producing "dusty galaxies" at such a young time in the universe's development. "They were not in line with what you would expect from the well known population of radio sources," said John Carlstrom, Deputy Director of the Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago and leader of the 10-meter South Pole Telescope project. "This was the first clue we were onto something interesting. ...It meant that they had escaped detection in the infrared surveys. No one had predicted that we would see such a luminous population of dusty galaxies so far back."
Dan P. Marrone, Assistant Professor in the Department of Astronomy at the University of Arizona, also noted the results were possible even though ALMA itself is still incomplete. "With little more than a dozen antennas at ALMA, we were able to make very detailed images of these galaxies - and that was after just two minutes of observations per galaxy." He added, "When ALMA is completed, the observations we obtained for this first study are just going to be trivial."
Joaquin D. Vieira a member of the California Institute of Technology's Observational Cosmology Group, as well as leader of the group studying the galaxies discovered by the South Pole Telescope, looked forward. "[Now] we can dig deeper into the spectra of these galaxies to find out what they're made of; we can do chemistry with them," he said. "Future studies also will help us answer other important questions, such as how they formed. Did they form through mergers, or through the slow accretion of gas? How many stellar generations reside in these galaxies?"Read more at:
James Cohen | EurekAlert!
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A quantum entanglement between two physically separated ultra-cold atomic clouds
17.05.2018 | University of the Basque Country
So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics
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Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.
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A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.
Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...
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