Using data taken by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, astronomers at the University of Arizona have spotted an eruption of dust around a young star, possibly the result of a smashup between large asteroids. This type of collision can eventually lead to the formation of terrestrial planets.
A few months after scientists began tracking the star, called NGC 2547-ID8, it surged with a huge amount of fresh dust between August 2012 and January 2013.
"We think two big asteroids crashed into each other, creating a huge cloud of grains the size of very fine sand, which are now smashing themselves into smithereens and slowly leaking away from the star," said Huan Meng, the study's lead author and a graduate student in the UA Department of Planetary Sciences.
This is the first time scientists have collected data before and after a planetary system smashup. The viewing offers a glimpse into the violent process of making rocky planets like Earth.
Rocky planets begin life as dusty material circling around young stars. The material clumps together to form asteroids that occasionally run into each other. Although the asteroids often are destroyed, some grow over time and transform into proto-planets. After about 100 million years, the objects mature into full-grown, terrestrial planets.
In the new study, Spitzer – which includes technology developed at the UA – set its heat-seeking infrared eyes on the dusty star NGC 2547-ID8, which is a solar-type star that is about 35 million years old and and lies 1,200 light-years away in the Vela constellation. Beginning in May 2012, the telescope began watching the star, sometimes daily.
A dramatic change in the star came during a time when Spitzer had to point away from NGC 2547-ID8 because the sun was in the way. When Spitzer started observing the star again five months later, team members were shocked by the data they received.
"We not only witnessed what appears to be the wreckage of a huge smashup, but have been able to track how it is changing – the signal is fading as the cloud destroys itself by grinding its grains down so they escape from the star," said Kate Su, an associate astronomer at the UA Department of Astronomy and Steward Observatory and co-author on the study.
"We are watching rocky planet formation happen right in front of us," said George Rieke, a UA Regents' Professor of Astronomy who led one of the instrument-developing teams on the Spitzer telescope project and a co-author on the study. "This is a unique chance to study this process in near real time."
Since terrestrial planet formation is a messy process that takes more than tens of millions of years, scientists rely on computer simulations to understand the process. The observations reported here open an avenue to compare those simulations with how it happens in the real world, Rieke said.
After Spitzer's expected end of operations later this decade, astronomers will catch a glimpse of the dust around these stars with the James Webb Space Telescope, or JWST, currently under construction and planned for launch in late 2018. JWST, too, will use technology developed at the UA to observe the most distant objects in the universe: a mid-infrared-wavelength camera developed by Rieke and a near-infrared-wavelength camera developed by Regents' Professor of Astronomy Marcia Rieke, his wife.
"Combining work with both telescopes over 20 to 25 years will provide us with a detailed look at how planets like Earth are assembled," Su said.
The results of this study are posted online on the website of the journal Science.
For images, please contact:
Jet Propulsion Laboratory
George Rieke | University of Arizona
Introducing the disposable laser
04.05.2016 | American Institute of Physics
New fabrication and thermo-optical tuning of whispering gallery microlasers
04.05.2016 | Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology (OIST) Graduate University
Using an ultra fast-scanning atomic force microscope, a team of researchers from the University of Basel has filmed “living” nuclear pore complexes at work for the first time. Nuclear pores are molecular machines that control the traffic entering or exiting the cell nucleus. In their article published in Nature Nanotechnology, the researchers explain how the passage of unwanted molecules is prevented by rapidly moving molecular “tentacles” inside the pore.
Using high-speed AFM, Roderick Lim, Argovia Professor at the Biozentrum and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute of the University of Basel, has not only directly...
If a person pushes a broken-down car alone, there is a certain effect. If another person helps, the result is the sum of their efforts. If two micro-particles are pushing another microparticle, however, the resulting effect may not necessarily be the sum their efforts. A recent study published in Nature Communications, measured this odd effect that scientists call “many body.”
In the microscopic world, where the modern miniaturized machines at the new frontiers of technology operate, as long as we are in the presence of two...
Researchers from the Max Planck Institute Stuttgart have developed self-propelled tiny ‘microbots’ that can remove lead or organic pollution from contaminated water.
Working with colleagues in Barcelona and Singapore, Samuel Sánchez’s group used graphene oxide to make their microscale motors, which are able to adsorb lead...
Neutron scattering and computational modeling have revealed unique and unexpected behavior of water molecules under extreme confinement that is unmatched by any known gas, liquid or solid states.
In a paper published in Physical Review Letters, researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory describe a new tunneling state of...
Honeycomb structures as the basic building block for industrial applications presented using holo pyramid
Researchers of the Alfred Wegener Institute (AWI) will introduce their latest developments in the field of bionic lightweight design at Hannover Messe from 25...
27.04.2016 | Event News
15.04.2016 | Event News
12.04.2016 | Event News
04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
04.05.2016 | Physics and Astronomy
04.05.2016 | Materials Sciences