Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Stars 2.0 – From the first generation of stars to the second

22.07.2014

Göttingen scientists model the formation of the oldest known star in the Milky Way

Scientists from the Universities of Göttingen and Copenhagen have modelled the formation of the oldest known star in the Milky Way using high-resolution computer simulations.


Density, temperature, and CII projections along the y-axis at a scale of 1 pc, for three different metallicities.

Photo: University of Göttingen

Using the star’s abundance patterns, the scientists performed cosmological simulations on a supercomputer of the North-German Supercomputing Alliance which included the dynamics of gas and dark matter as well as the chemical evolution.

From this simulation, the scientists expect to obtain an improved understanding of the transition from the first to the second generation of stars in the Universe. The results of their study were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

The stars of the first generation were formed out of a primordial gas which consisted only of hydrogen and helium. Their mass ranged from ten to five hundred times the mass of our Sun. Nuclear processes in the interior of these stars created heavy elements like iron, silicon, carbon, and oxygen.

When the stars died during the first supernova explosions, the heavy elements were ejected and formed the stars of the second generation.

“Our simulations indicate that the gas efficiently cools during the process,” explains the leader of the study, Dr. Stefano Bovino from Göttingen University’s Institute for Astrophysics. “Such conditions favor the formation of low-mass stars.” The presence of heavy elements provides additional mechanisms for the gas to cool. It is therefore very important for the scientists to follow and model their chemical evolution.

The scientists chose the oldest known star of the Milky Way, called SMSS J031300.-36-670839.3 and estimated to be roughly 13.6 billion years old, because its abundance patterns were previously shown to be consistent with one single low-energy supernova.

“It seems very likely that this star is indeed one of the very first stars that formed out of the metal-enriched gas,” says Göttingen University’s Prof. Dr. Dominik Schleicher. “The chemical conditions reflect those right after the first supernova explosion.”

While SMSS J031300.-36-670839.3 has only a tiny amount of heavy elements, it has a relatively higher carbon abundance. It in fact represents an entire class with similar properties, and the scientists expect a very similar formation pathway for the entire class.

The new simulations became feasible through the development of the chemistry package KROME, a joint effort led by the University of Copenhagen. In the future, the scientists plan to explore a wide range of possible conditions to understand the formation of the most metal-poor stars observed in the Milky Way.

Original publication: Stefano Bovino et al. Formation of carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in the presence of far ultraviolet radiation. 2014 ApJ 790 L35. Doi: 10.1088/2041-8205/790/2/L35.

Contact:
Prof. Dr. Dominik Schleicher
University of Göttingen
Faculty of Physics – Institute for Astrophysics
Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany
Phone +49 551 39-5045
Email: dominik.schleicher@phys.uni-goettingen.de

Weitere Informationen:

http://vimeo.com/101191120
http://www.astro.physik.uni-goettingen.de/~dschleic/
http://www.kromepackage.org

Thomas Richter | idw - Informationsdienst Wissenschaft

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Streamlining accelerated computing for industry
24.08.2016 | DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory

nachricht Lehigh engineer discovers a high-speed nano-avalanche
24.08.2016 | Lehigh University

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Streamlining accelerated computing for industry

PyFR code combines high accuracy with flexibility to resolve unsteady turbulence problems

Scientists and engineers striving to create the next machine-age marvel--whether it be a more aerodynamic rocket, a faster race car, or a higher-efficiency jet...

Im Focus: X-ray optics on a chip

Waveguides are widely used for filtering, confining, guiding, coupling or splitting beams of visible light. However, creating waveguides that could do the same for X-rays has posed tremendous challenges in fabrication, so they are still only in an early stage of development.

In the latest issue of Acta Crystallographica Section A: Foundations and Advances , Sarah Hoffmann-Urlaub and Tim Salditt report the fabrication and testing of...

Im Focus: Piggyback battery for microchips: TU Graz researchers develop new battery concept

Electrochemists at TU Graz have managed to use monocrystalline semiconductor silicon as an active storage electrode in lithium batteries. This enables an integrated power supply to be made for microchips with a rechargeable battery.

Small electrical gadgets, such as mobile phones, tablets or notebooks, are indispensable accompaniments of everyday life. Integrated circuits in the interiors...

Im Focus: UCI physicists confirm possible discovery of fifth force of nature

Light particle could be key to understanding dark matter in universe

Recent findings indicating the possible discovery of a previously unknown subatomic particle may be evidence of a fifth fundamental force of nature, according...

Im Focus: Wi-fi from lasers

White light from lasers demonstrates data speeds of up to 2 GB/s

A nanocrystalline material that rapidly makes white light out of blue light has been developed by KAUST researchers.

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

The energy transition is not possible without Geotechnics

25.08.2016 | Event News

New Ideas for the Shipping Industry

24.08.2016 | Event News

A week of excellence: 22 of the world’s best computer scientists and mathematicians in Heidelberg

12.08.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

Symmetry crucial for building key biomaterial collagen in the lab

26.08.2016 | Health and Medicine

Volcanic eruption masked acceleration in sea level rise

26.08.2016 | Earth Sciences

Moth takes advantage of defensive compounds in Physalis fruits

26.08.2016 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>