The universe is very large and our understanding of it very small. Despite the straitened U.S. economy and a crisis of confidence in other countries, there is an opportunity to push out further into the solar system.
Norm Augustine, former chairman of Lockheed Martin, is heading a panel that is expected, by August, to offer an opinion as to whether NASA's human spaceflight efforts are worth continuing or whether the emphasis should be shifted to unmanned exploration.
As the panel's members meet to discuss the pros and cons of various missions, astronauts, engineers, and other stakeholders are also debating over the hardware and software required for survival in space. In the June issue of IEEE Spectrum, experts and editors explain the rocket science (yes, it is rocket science) and related efforts behind the current and expected space programs in different countries.
Four hundred years ago, Galileo peered through his telescope. Forty years ago, Apollo astronauts took humanity's first baby step into the cosmos. Now it's time to take the next one.
"Introduction: Why Mars? Why Now?" by Susan Hassler (firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7556) President Obama has yet to appoint a new administrator for NASA. That person will need to find funding, on top of the billions already spent, for a new launch vehicle for a return to the moon, as the first stage of a planned Mars mission sometime after 2030.
"Mars Is Hard" by Fred Guterl and Monica Heger (Jean Kumagai, email@example.com, 212-419-7551) Fifty years ago, space experts thought we'd be there by now. Here's why we're not.
"What To Wear on Mars" by Monica Heger (Jean Kumagai, firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7551) Those bulky Apollo-era spacesuits are so yesterday.
"The Kind of People Who Will Go to Mars" by David A. Wolf (Susan Hassler, email@example.com, 212-419-7556) They won't lack fear--they'll be able to operate well in the face of it.
"What To Pack for Mars" by Olivier L. De Weck (Joshua J. Romero, firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7550) A successful mission requires a well-planned supply strategy.
"Risky Business" by Elon Musk (Tekla S. Perry, email@example.com, 650-328-7570) Why Mars is more important than cosmetics and why a failed launch is also a partial success.
"Rockets for the Red Planet" by Sandra Upson (firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7920) Engineers rethink how to get to Mars and back.
"How To Go to Mars--Right Now!" by Robert Zubrin (Jean Kumagai, email@example.com, 212-419-7551) Human exploration of Mars doesn't need to wait for advanced rockets, giant spaceships, or lunar base stations.
"Could China Get to Mars First?" by James Oberg (William Sweet, firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7559) Maybe--if it adopts a less top-down approach.
"Moonstruck" by William Sweet (email@example.com, 212-419-7559) There's a palpable longing to go back, but does it make sense?
"It's Only Rocket Science" by Prachi Patel (Jean Kumagai, firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7551) For the Carnegie Mellon team vying for the Google Lunar X Prize, failure to launch--and land--is not an option.
"India Joins League of Lunar Nations" by G. Madhavan Nair (Glenn Zorpette, email@example.com, 212-419-7580) The head of the Indian Space Agency talks about his country's first robotic lunar mission and plans for landing an Indian on the moon and Mars.
"Mars for the Rest of Us" by Joshua J. Romero (firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7550) Better cameras, greater bandwidth, and bigger displays put Mars within reach of armchair explorers.
"The End of the Cult of the Astronaut" by David A. Mindell (Jean Kumagai, email@example.com, 212-419-7551) How do you justify human spaceflight?
"The Amazing Orbiting Garriotts" by Owen and Richard Garriott (Jean Kumagai, firstname.lastname@example.org, 212-419-7551) The second father-and-son pair to have traveled in space offer their thoughts on weightlessness, ham radio, and why the Space Station is like the movie Metropolis.
"The Mars Challenge" by Leah H. Jamieson with John Norberg (Susan Hassler, email@example.com, 212-419-7556) Human exploration of the Red Planet will inspire new generations of engineers.
Nancy T. Hantman | Newswise Science News
Structured light and nanomaterials open new ways to tailor light at the nanoscale
23.04.2018 | Academy of Finland
On the shape of the 'petal' for the dissipation curve
23.04.2018 | Lobachevsky University
At the Hannover Messe 2018, the Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-prüfung (BAM) will show how, in the future, astronauts could produce their own tools or spare parts in zero gravity using 3D printing. This will reduce, weight and transport costs for space missions. Visitors can experience the innovative additive manufacturing process live at the fair.
Powder-based additive manufacturing in zero gravity is the name of the project in which a component is produced by applying metallic powder layers and then...
Physicists at the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics, which is jointly run by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, have developed a high-power laser system that generates ultrashort pulses of light covering a large share of the mid-infrared spectrum. The researchers envisage a wide range of applications for the technology – in the early diagnosis of cancer, for instance.
Molecules are the building blocks of life. Like all other organisms, we are made of them. They control our biorhythm, and they can also reflect our state of...
University of Connecticut researchers have created a biodegradable composite made of silk fibers that can be used to repair broken load-bearing bones without the complications sometimes presented by other materials.
Repairing major load-bearing bones such as those in the leg can be a long and uncomfortable process.
Study published in the journal ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces is the outcome of an international effort that included teams from Dresden and Berlin in Germany, and the US.
Scientists at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) together with colleagues from the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) and the University of Virginia...
Novel highly efficient and brilliant gamma-ray source: Based on model calculations, physicists of the Max PIanck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg propose a novel method for an efficient high-brilliance gamma-ray source. A giant collimated gamma-ray pulse is generated from the interaction of a dense ultra-relativistic electron beam with a thin solid conductor. Energetic gamma-rays are copiously produced as the electron beam splits into filaments while propagating across the conductor. The resulting gamma-ray energy and flux enable novel experiments in nuclear and fundamental physics.
The typical wavelength of light interacting with an object of the microcosm scales with the size of this object. For atoms, this ranges from visible light to...
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