Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

SF State astronomers discover new planet in Pisces constellation

10.01.2014
A team led by SF State astronomer Stephen Kane has discovered a new giant planet located in a star system within the Pisces constellation. The planet, perhaps twice the mass of Jupiter, could help researchers learn more about how extrasolar planets are formed.

The star system harboring the new planet contains only one star, as do the other three systems with extrasolar planets analyzed by Kane, an assistant professor of physics and astronomy, and his colleagues. It is a surprising finding, given the high rate of multiple-star systems in our solar neighborhood.

"There is a great interest in these stars that are known to host planets," Kane explained, since astronomers suspect that planet formation in a multi-star system would be very different from planet formation in a single-star system like our own. Kane presented his findings today at the annual conference of the American Astronomical Society.

A multiple-star system "might have not one but two planetary disks" where planets form, he said. "Or it could be that having an extra star would be disruptive, and its gravity could cause any protoplanets to pull apart."

Relatively few extrasolar planets have been found in multiple-star systems, "but we know that they are there," Kane said.

In the four systems studied by the researchers, using optical imaging data collected at the Gemini North observatory in Hawaii, there were some intriguing signs that perhaps a second star -- or something else -- was present.

In each system, the extrasolar planets were discovered by the radial velocity technique, pioneered at SF State by astronomer Geoffrey Marcy, now at the University of California, Berkeley. The radial velocity technique measures variations in the speed at which a star moves away and toward Earth, perturbed or "wobbled" by the gravitational pull of a nearby cosmic body. Depending on the radial velocity signature, astronomers can calculate whether the wobble is coming from a planet or star.

In the star systems studied by Kane and his colleagues, there was a part of the radial velocity data that couldn't be explained entirely by the pull of an orbiting planet. And at the same time, the planets that had already been discovered in these systems followed eccentric orbits, swinging away from their stars in a less circular and more elliptical fashion, "more like that of a comet," Kane said.

With these two clues, the researchers wondered if the radial velocity and eccentric orbits might be explained by the presence of another star in the system. But when they took a closer look at the systems, they were able to rule out the possibility that another star was perturbing the system.

"I thought we were likely to find stellar companions, and when all four didn't have a binary star, that did surprise me," Kane said.

But in the case of one star, Pisces' HD 4230, the unexplained radial velocity appears to be coming from the pull of a previously undiscovered giant planet, the researchers report. They confirmed the planet's presence with additional radial velocity data collected at Hawaii's Keck observatory.

Given that the researchers did not find any stellar companions, Kane says it is very likely that the leftover radial velocity is instead a signal that there are additional planets to be found in all four systems. The researchers feel this is especially true for the system called HD 168443, where their ability to detect a companion star was very strong.

Kane is one of the few astronomers to use a variety of planet-hunting techniques, including radial velocity and imaging. He said that the new findings had motivated him to look at other extrasolar systems with similar kinds of unexplained radial velocity data, to see if other stars or planets may be lurking there.

"Limits on Stellar Companions to Exoplanet Host Stars with Eccentric Planets" is in press at Astrophysical Journal. Kane co-authored the study with SF State Postdoctoral Fellow Natalie R. Hinkel; Steve B. Howell of NASA Ames Research Center; Elliott P. Horch of Southern Connecticut State University; Ying Feng and Jason T. Wright of Pennsylvania State University; David R. Ciardi of NASA Exoplanet Science Institute; Mark E. Everett of National Optical Astronomy Observatory and Andrew W. Howard of the University of Hawaii.

SF State is the only master's level public university serving the counties of San Francisco, San Mateo and Marin. The university enrolls more than 30,000 students each year. With nationally acclaimed programs in a range of fields -- from creative writing, cinema and biology to history, broadcast and electronic communications arts, theatre arts and ethnic studies -- the University's more than 219,000 graduates have contributed to the economic cultural and civic fabric of San Francisco and beyond.

Nan Broadbent | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.sfsu.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Rosetta’s comet contains ingredients for life
30.05.2016 | Universität Bern

nachricht Present-day measurements yield insights into clouds of the past
27.05.2016 | Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Worldwide Success of Tyrolean Wastewater Treatment Technology

A biological and energy-efficient process, developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck, converts nitrogen compounds in wastewater treatment facilities into harmless atmospheric nitrogen gas. This innovative technology is now being refined and marketed jointly with the United States’ DC Water and Sewer Authority (DC Water). The largest DEMON®-system in a wastewater treatment plant is currently being built in Washington, DC.

The DEMON®-system was developed and patented by the University of Innsbruck 11 years ago. Today this successful technology has been implemented in about 70...

Im Focus: Computational high-throughput screening finds hard magnets containing less rare earth elements

Permanent magnets are very important for technologies of the future like electromobility and renewable energy, and rare earth elements (REE) are necessary for their manufacture. The Fraunhofer Institute for Mechanics of Materials IWM in Freiburg, Germany, has now succeeded in identifying promising approaches and materials for new permanent magnets through use of an in-house simulation process based on high-throughput screening (HTS). The team was able to improve magnetic properties this way and at the same time replaced REE with elements that are less expensive and readily available. The results were published in the online technical journal “Scientific Reports”.

The starting point for IWM researchers Wolfgang Körner, Georg Krugel, and Christian Elsässer was a neodymium-iron-nitrogen compound based on a type of...

Im Focus: Atomic precision: technologies for the next-but-one generation of microchips

In the Beyond EUV project, the Fraunhofer Institutes for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen and for Applied Optics and Precision Engineering IOF in Jena are developing key technologies for the manufacture of a new generation of microchips using EUV radiation at a wavelength of 6.7 nm. The resulting structures are barely thicker than single atoms, and they make it possible to produce extremely integrated circuits for such items as wearables or mind-controlled prosthetic limbs.

In 1965 Gordon Moore formulated the law that came to be named after him, which states that the complexity of integrated circuits doubles every one to two...

Im Focus: Researchers demonstrate size quantization of Dirac fermions in graphene

Characterization of high-quality material reveals important details relevant to next generation nanoelectronic devices

Quantum mechanics is the field of physics governing the behavior of things on atomic scales, where things work very differently from our everyday world.

Im Focus: Graphene: A quantum of current

When current comes in discrete packages: Viennese scientists unravel the quantum properties of the carbon material graphene

In 2010 the Nobel Prize in physics was awarded for the discovery of the exceptional material graphene, which consists of a single layer of carbon atoms...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Networking 4.0: International Laser Technology Congress AKL’16 Shows New Ways of Cooperations

24.05.2016 | Event News

Challenges of rural labor markets

20.05.2016 | Event News

International expert meeting “Health Business Connect” in France

19.05.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

3-D model reveals how invisible waves move materials within aquatic ecosystems

30.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

Spin glass physics with trapped ions

30.05.2016 | Materials Sciences

Optatec 2016: Robust glass optical elements for LED lighting

30.05.2016 | Trade Fair News

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>