Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Scientists See "Sloshing" Galaxy Cluster

31.01.2012
A Naval Research Laboratory scientist is part of a team that has recently discovered that vast clouds of hot gas are "sloshing" in Abell 2052, a galaxy cluster located about 480 million light years from Earth.

The scientists are studying the hot (30 million degree) gas using X-ray data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and optical data from the Very Large Telescope to see the galaxies.

"The X-ray images were amazing. We were able to see gas sloshing like liquid in a glass" explains NRL's Dr. Tracy Clarke. "Of course this would be one enormous glass since we see the gas sloshing over a region of nearly a million light years across!"

The Chandra data reveal the huge spiral structure in the hot gas around the outside of the image. Zooming in on the cluster reveals "cavities" or "bubbles" surrounding the central giant elliptical galaxy. The spiral began when a small cluster of galaxies collided off-center with a larger one positioned around that central galaxy.

The gravitational attraction of the smaller cluster drew the hot gas out of the central cluster toward the smaller cluster. Once the smaller cluster passed by the central cluster core, the gas movement reversed and it was pulled back toward the center of the main cluster. The hot cluster gas overshot the cluster center, creating the "sloshing" effect that is like the sloshing that occurs when a glass holding a liquid is quickly jerked sideways. In the cluster, gravity pulls back on the gas cloud, creating the spiral pattern.

For scientists, the observation of the "sloshing" motion in Abell 2052 is important for two reasons. First, the "sloshing" helps to move some of the cooler, dense gas in the center of the core farther away from the core. This cooler gas is only about 10 million degrees, as compared to the average temperature of 30 million degrees. This movement reduces the amount of cooling in the cluster core and could limit the amount of new stars being formed in the central galaxy. The "sloshing" movement in Abell 2052 also helps redistribute heavy elements like iron and oxygen, which are created out of supernova explosions. These heavy elements are an important part of the make-up of future stars and planets. The fact that Chandra's observation of Abell 2052 lasted more than a week was critical in providing scientists with the details detected in this image.

Besides the large-scale spiral feature, the Chandra observations also allowed scientists to see details in the center of the cluster related to outbursts from the supermassive black hole. The data reveal bubbles resulting from material blasted away from the black hole which are surrounded by dense, bright, cool rims. In the same way that the "sloshing" helps to reduce the cooling of the gas at the core of the cluster, the bubble activity has the same effect, limiting the growth of the galaxy and its supermassive black hole.

This research was published in the August 20, 2011 issue of The Astrophysical Journal. The authors were Elizabeth Blanton of Boston University, Boston, MA; Scott Randall of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA; Tracy Clarke of the Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, in Washington DC; Craig Sarazin of the University of Virginia in Charlottesville, VA; Brian McNamara of the University of Waterloo in Waterloo, Canada; Edmund Douglass of Boston University and Michael McDonald of the University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

About the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory is the Navy's full-spectrum corporate laboratory, conducting a broadly based multidisciplinary program of scientific research and advanced technological development. The Laboratory, with a total complement of nearly 2,500 personnel, is located in southwest Washington, D.C., with other major sites at the Stennis Space Center, Miss., and Monterey, Calif. NRL has served the Navy and the nation for over 85 years and continues to meet the complex technological challenges of today's world. For more information, visit the NRL homepage or join the conversation on Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube.

Donna McKinney | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.nrl.navy.mil
http://www.nrl.navy.mil/media/news-releases/2012/scientists-see-sloshing-galaxy-cluster

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht New material for splitting water
19.06.2018 | American Institute of Physics

nachricht Carbon nanotube optics provide optical-based quantum cryptography and quantum computing
19.06.2018 | DOE/Los Alamos National Laboratory

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Overdosing on Calcium

Nano crystals impact stem cell fate during bone formation

Scientists from the University of Freiburg and the University of Basel identified a master regulator for bone regeneration. Prasad Shastri, Professor of...

Im Focus: AchemAsia 2019 will take place in Shanghai

Moving into its fourth decade, AchemAsia is setting out for new horizons: The International Expo and Innovation Forum for Sustainable Chemical Production will take place from 21-23 May 2019 in Shanghai, China. With an updated event profile, the eleventh edition focusses on topics that are especially relevant for the Chinese process industry, putting a strong emphasis on sustainability and innovation.

Founded in 1989 as a spin-off of ACHEMA to cater to the needs of China’s then developing industry, AchemAsia has since grown into a platform where the latest...

Im Focus: First real-time test of Li-Fi utilization for the industrial Internet of Things

The BMBF-funded OWICELLS project was successfully completed with a final presentation at the BMW plant in Munich. The presentation demonstrated a Li-Fi communication with a mobile robot, while the robot carried out usual production processes (welding, moving and testing parts) in a 5x5m² production cell. The robust, optical wireless transmission is based on spatial diversity; in other words, data is sent and received simultaneously by several LEDs and several photodiodes. The system can transmit data at more than 100 Mbit/s and five milliseconds latency.

Modern production technologies in the automobile industry must become more flexible in order to fulfil individual customer requirements.

Im Focus: Sharp images with flexible fibers

An international team of scientists has discovered a new way to transfer image information through multimodal fibers with almost no distortion - even if the fiber is bent. The results of the study, to which scientist from the Leibniz-Institute of Photonic Technology Jena (Leibniz IPHT) contributed, were published on 6thJune in the highly-cited journal Physical Review Letters.

Endoscopes allow doctors to see into a patient’s body like through a keyhole. Typically, the images are transmitted via a bundle of several hundreds of optical...

Im Focus: Photoexcited graphene puzzle solved

A boost for graphene-based light detectors

Light detection and control lies at the heart of many modern device applications, such as smartphone cameras. Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Munich conference on asteroid detection, tracking and defense

13.06.2018 | Event News

2nd International Baltic Earth Conference in Denmark: “The Baltic Sea region in Transition”

08.06.2018 | Event News

ISEKI_Food 2018: Conference with Holistic View of Food Production

05.06.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Carbon nanotube optics provide optical-based quantum cryptography and quantum computing

19.06.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

How to track and trace a protein: Nanosensors monitor intracellular deliveries

19.06.2018 | Life Sciences

New material for splitting water

19.06.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>