Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Schoolteacher Discovers ‘Cosmic Ghost’

07.08.2008
A Dutch schoolteacher has discovered a mysterious and unique astronomical object through the Galaxy Zoo project, which enables members of the public to take part in astronomy research online.

Hanny van Arkel, a primary schoolteacher from the Netherlands, came across the image of a strange gaseous object with a hole in the center that has been described as a “cosmic ghost” while using the http://www.galaxyzoo.org Web site to classify images of galaxies.

She posted about the image – which quickly became known as Hanny’s ‘Voorwerp’ after the Dutch for 'object’ – on the Galaxy Zoo forum and the astronomers who run the site began to investigate. They soon realized the potential significance of what they think is a new class of astronomical object and will now use the Hubble Space Telescope to get a closer look at ‘Hanny’s Voorwerp.’

“At first we thought it was a distant galaxy,” said Dr. Chris Lintott of Oxford University, a galaxyzoo.org team member, “but we realised there were no stars in it so that it must be a cloud of gas.” What was particularly puzzling to astronomers was that the gas was so hot – more than 10,000 degrees Celsius – when there were no stars in the vicinity to heat it up.

“We now think that what we’re looking at is light from a quasar – the bright, stormy centre of a distant galaxy powered by a supermassive black hole,” said Lintott. “The quasar itself is no longer visible to us, but its light continues to travel through space and the Voorwerp is a massive ‘light echo’ produced as this light strikes the gas.”

“This discovery really shows how citizen science has come of age in the Internet world,” said Dr. William “Bill” Keel, professor of astronomy at The University of Alabama, and a galaxyzoo.org team member.

“Hanny’s attentiveness alerted us not only to a peculiar object, but to a window into the cosmic past which might have eluded us for a long time otherwise,” Keel said. “Trying to understand the processes operating here has proven to be a fascinating challenge, involving a whole range of astrophysical techniques and instruments around the world and beyond. This has also been some of the most rewarding astronomy I’ve done in years!”

Keel is the principal investigator on the Hubble approved project to look more closely at the object.

The black hole at the center of the galaxy, IC 2497, is now ‘turned off’ – which is why the quasar has gone dim – but around 100,000 years ago the quasar was bright enough to have been visible from the Earth through a small, inexpensive telescope.

“From the point of view of the Voorwerp the galaxy looks as bright as it would have done before the black hole turned off – it’s this light echo that has been ‘frozen in time’ for us to observe,” Lintott said. “It’s rather like examining the scene of a crime where, although we can’t see them, we know the culprit must be lurking somewhere nearby in the shadows.”

“IC 2497 is so close that if the quasar was still shining today, on a good night you could probably see it with a small telescope,” said galaxyzoo.org team member Kevin Schawinski of Yale University. “The nearest active quasar, called 3C 273, is 1.7 billion light years further away.”

Smaller light echoes have been noted around supernovae before but never anything of the scale and shape of the Voorwerp. As yet nobody has a sensible explanation for the hole that runs through its center.

“It’s amazing to think that this object has been sitting in the archives for decades and that amateur volunteers can help by spotting things like this online,” said Hanny van Arkel. “It was a fantastic present to find out on my 25th birthday that we will get observational time on the Hubble Space Telescope to follow-up this discovery.”

Dr. Dan Smith of Liverpool John Moores University and Peter Herbert of the University of Hertfordshire were observing using the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes in La Palma, Spain, when word of the discovery filtered through.

“When we got the news about Hanny's Voorwerp we were intrigued to find out what it was, and, fortunately, we were able to slew the telescopes round and get some great images and spectra to study it,” said Smith. “It was only later that we heard the story about how it had been discovered; it's inspirational that Hanny picked out this object from Galaxy Zoo in her spare time and nobody had ever seen anything like it before.”

During the last year, 50 million classifications of galaxies have been submitted on one million objects at www.galaxyzoo.org by more than 150,000 armchair astronomers from all over the world.

The next stage of Galaxy Zoo will ask volunteers for more detailed classifications, making it easier to identify more unusual objects such as Hanny's Voorwerp.

Notes to editors
• The Galaxy Zoo team includes scientists from the University of Oxford, the University of Portsmouth and Johns Hopkins University, and Fingerprint Digital Media of Belfast. Key contributors to this stage of the project were William “Bill” Keel from The University of Alabama, Dan Smith (Liverpool John Moores University) Peter Herbert and Matt Jarvis (University of Hertfordshire) and Nicola Bennert (University of California Riverside).
• Details of the discovery are included in a paper submitted by the team to the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.
• Images related to the project can be viewed at http://www.ox.ac.uk/media/news_releases_for_journalists/gzvimages.html

• The new digital images used in Galaxy Zoo were taken using the robotic Sloan Digital Sky Survey telescope in New Mexico. For more on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey visit http://www.sdss.org. For full details of those involved go to http://www.sdss.org/collaboration/credits.html

Pete Wilton | Newswise Science News
Further information:
http://www.galaxyzoo.org
http://uanews.ua.edu/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL
23.06.2017 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

nachricht Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?
23.06.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>