Scientists of the Pierre Auger Collaboration have announced in Malargüe (Mendoza, Argentina) that the Active Galactic Nuclei are probably responsible for the most energetic particles or cosmic rays that reach the Earth, thanks to the first results of the Pierre Auger Observatory of the Southern Hemisphere in Argentina (the largest cosmic ray detector in the world). These results have been published the 9th of November, in the prestigious journal ‘Science’.
The winner of the Nobel Prize, James W. Cronin, of the University of Chicago, who conceived in 1991 the Observatory Pierre Auger with Alan Watson, of the University of Leeds, present director and spokesman of the experiment, has mentioned that this group has “made an important movement to solve the secret of the origin of the most energetic cosmic rays, discovered by the French physicist Pierre Auger in 1938. The firmament in the Southern Hemisphere, observed with cosmic rays, is not uniform. This is a fundamental discovery, thanks to which the age of cosmic ray astronomy has started. In the next years, our data will make possible the identification of the sources of these cosmic rays and the way they accelerate particles."At the speed of light
Twenty-four telescopes specially designed detect the fluorescence light emitted by nitrogen molecules of the atmosphere with the passing of the cascade. The network of particle detectors and the fluorescence telescopes are an excellent combination, which improves perceptibly the precision of previous instruments. The Observatory owes its name to the French scientist Pierre Victor Auger (1899-1993), who discovered in 1938 the atmospheric cascades produced by the interaction of cosmic rays in the atmosphere.
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are some of the most violent objects in the Universe. There have been conjectures about its possible link with the production of high energy particles. Scientists think that most of the galaxies present black holes in the centre, with a mass of between one million and thousand million times the solar mass. The one of the Milky Way, our galaxy, has about 3 million solar masses. Galaxies with an active nucleus seem to be those which have suffered any collision with another galaxy or any important disturbance in the last hundred million years. The AGN capture the mass that falls in their gravity field releasing prodigious amounts of energy in particle jets. Auger’s result shows that AGN can produce the most energetic particles in the Universe.UGR participation
“We are a young group, formed by three doctors in 2003. It is the only group in Andalusia which is carrying out this type of research work. Despite being recent members of a well-established collaboration, such as this of the Pierre Auger Observatory, we are contributing visibly to its development, thanks to the enthusiasm and commitment of our young students. Shortly we will have two doctoral thesis in this field”, says Antonio Bueno. Besides that, the group is also collaborating with another international experiment in the search for dark matter with detectors of liquid argon, which will be installed in the subterranean laboratory of Canfranc (Huesca). The central office of the BIC (Health Campus) has the only cryogenic laboratory for particle detectors in Spain.
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Strathclyde-led research develops world's highest gain high-power laser amplifier
29.05.2017 | University of Strathclyde
The world's highest gain high power laser amplifier - by many orders of magnitude - has been developed in research led at the University of Strathclyde.
The researchers demonstrated the feasibility of using plasma to amplify short laser pulses of picojoule-level energy up to 100 millijoules, which is a 'gain'...
Staphylococcus aureus is a feared pathogen (MRSA, multi-resistant S. aureus) due to frequent resistances against many antibiotics, especially in hospital infections. Researchers at the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut have identified immunological processes that prevent a successful immune response directed against the pathogenic agent. The delivery of bacterial proteins with RNA adjuvant or messenger RNA (mRNA) into immune cells allows the re-direction of the immune response towards an active defense against S. aureus. This could be of significant importance for the development of an effective vaccine. PLOS Pathogens has published these research results online on 25 May 2017.
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bacterium that colonizes by far more than half of the skin and the mucosa of adults, usually without causing infections....
Physicists from the University of Würzburg are capable of generating identical looking single light particles at the push of a button. Two new studies now demonstrate the potential this method holds.
The quantum computer has fuelled the imagination of scientists for decades: It is based on fundamentally different phenomena than a conventional computer....
An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behaviour of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy.
We can refer to electrons in non-conducting materials as ‘sluggish’. Typically, they remain fixed in a location, deep inside an atomic composite. It is hence...
Two-dimensional magnetic structures are regarded as a promising material for new types of data storage, since the magnetic properties of individual molecular building blocks can be investigated and modified. For the first time, researchers have now produced a wafer-thin ferrimagnet, in which molecules with different magnetic centers arrange themselves on a gold surface to form a checkerboard pattern. Scientists at the Swiss Nanoscience Institute at the University of Basel and the Paul Scherrer Institute published their findings in the journal Nature Communications.
Ferrimagnets are composed of two centers which are magnetized at different strengths and point in opposing directions. Two-dimensional, quasi-flat ferrimagnets...
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