Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Modeling cell division : How a cell interacts with its microenvironment

11.06.2007
Division is a key step in the life of cells and involves complex dynamic interplay between a large number of molecular components. CNRS biologists at the Institut Curie and theoretical physicists of the Max Planck Institute in Germany have devised a theoretical model of cell division of great predictive value.

They have used microtechnology to study individual cell divisions as their environment changes. Based on observations of a great many cells, the researchers have devised a theoretical model that predicts the orientation of cell division. The model, which is reported in the 24 May 2007 issue of Nature, is based on calculation of the forces exerted on the mitotic spindle within the cell, and describes how cells divide normally and what happens when something goes awry. The model shows that certain configurations of the microenvironment induce asymmetric cell division. Once applied to tissues, the model will enable diagnoses to be refined, by describing the abnormal division of diseased cells.

Division is an essential stage in the life of all cells: it is involved in growth of the organism, repair of wounds or infections, and regular renewal of cells. At any given moment, 250 000 million cells are dividing in our bodies. Each of these cells has a very precisely defined location, which is essential to maintaining the shape of tissues and organs. Constraints imposed by other cells—the environment—influence the division and positioning of daughter cells.

Manuel Théry in the CNRS team of Michel Bornens has developed an original approach which he is now pursuing at the Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique in Grenoble(1), to study how a cell’s surroundings affect its division. A method called micropatterning is used to modulate the cell’s environment and observe its response, by imposing a given contour on the cell while giving it different adhesion zones, as if it were surrounded by other cells. This reproduces the spatial information that a cell is likely to receive within its tissue.

The CNRS team of Michel Bornens at the Institut Curie and the theoretical physics group of Frank Jülicher, Director of the Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems in Dresden, Germany, have joined forces to use this microtechnology to model cell division. They have measured the orientations of thousands of cell divisions and used their findings to propose a mechanical model of the orientation of the mitotic spindle, an ephemeral cellular structure present only during cell division, based on the activation of motor molecules at the cell surface. These motors, which are found where the cell contacts its microenvironment, pull on the astral microtubules and orient the spindle. This mechanism aligns the cell’s plane of division with the geometry of its environment.

The researchers have also shown that certain spatial configurations of the cellular microenvironment induce asymmetric orientations of the spindle. Whether or not cell division is symmetric is primordial in the fate of the resulting daughter cells. These results could therefore have interesting applications in the control of the symmetric or asymmetric divisions of stem cells in vitro.

Only microtechnologies such as the micropatterning technique can be used to study the individual “sensitivity” of cells and to derive laws to predict the distribution of cell division orientations, without knowing the details of the molecular mechanisms involved. These laws apply to an embryo or to an organism that is undergoing renewal. In time it may prove possible to describe the mechanics brought into play during development. This may not only result from but also actively regulates the genetics underpinning tissue growth.

It is now possible to quantify precisely a cell’s capacity to respond to its environment, and to identify cells that behave “abnormally”, like cancer cells. Once this model can be applied to tissues, physicians will be able to refine their diagnosis by gathering information on the way division is perturbed in diseased cells.

This work illustrates the value of exchanging skills and know-how, and shows how the bringing together of researchers from different backgrounds, which has long been central to the Institut Curie’s approach, generates a dynamic environment conducive to creativity. In particular, one of the great originalities of the Institut Curie has been to develop collaborations between physicists and biologists. This interface affords another vision of the world of the living cell, and promises much in our understanding of the complexity of living organisms.

(1) Manuel Théry is currently at the Laboratoire Biopuces, in the Institut de Recherches en Technologies et Sciences pour le Vivant (iRTSV) of the Commissariat à l’ Energie Atomique in Grenoble.

Catherine Goupillon | alfa
Further information:
http://www.nature.com/nature/index.html

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht From rocks in Colorado, evidence of a 'chaotic solar system'
23.02.2017 | University of Wisconsin-Madison

nachricht Prediction: More gas-giants will be found orbiting Sun-like stars
22.02.2017 | Carnegie Institution for Science

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Safe glide at total engine failure with ELA-inside

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded after a glide flight with an Airbus A320 in ditching on the Hudson River. All 155 people on board were saved.

On January 15, 2009, Chesley B. Sullenberger was celebrated world-wide: after the two engines had failed due to bird strike, he and his flight crew succeeded...

Im Focus: Breakthrough with a chain of gold atoms

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

In the field of nanoscience, an international team of physicists with participants from Konstanz has achieved a breakthrough in understanding heat transport

Im Focus: DNA repair: a new letter in the cell alphabet

Results reveal how discoveries may be hidden in scientific “blind spots”

Cells need to repair damaged DNA in our genes to prevent the development of cancer and other diseases. Our cells therefore activate and send “repair-proteins”...

Im Focus: Dresdner scientists print tomorrow’s world

The Fraunhofer IWS Dresden and Technische Universität Dresden inaugurated their jointly operated Center for Additive Manufacturing Dresden (AMCD) with a festive ceremony on February 7, 2017. Scientists from various disciplines perform research on materials, additive manufacturing processes and innovative technologies, which build up components in a layer by layer process. This technology opens up new horizons for component design and combinations of functions. For example during fabrication, electrical conductors and sensors are already able to be additively manufactured into components. They provide information about stress conditions of a product during operation.

The 3D-printing technology, or additive manufacturing as it is often called, has long made the step out of scientific research laboratories into industrial...

Im Focus: Mimicking nature's cellular architectures via 3-D printing

Research offers new level of control over the structure of 3-D printed materials

Nature does amazing things with limited design materials. Grass, for example, can support its own weight, resist strong wind loads, and recover after being...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Booth and panel discussion – The Lindau Nobel Laureate Meetings at the AAAS 2017 Annual Meeting

13.02.2017 | Event News

Complex Loading versus Hidden Reserves

10.02.2017 | Event News

International Conference on Crystal Growth in Freiburg

09.02.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

New pop-up strategy inspired by cuts, not folds

27.02.2017 | Materials Sciences

Sandia uses confined nanoparticles to improve hydrogen storage materials performance

27.02.2017 | Interdisciplinary Research

Decoding the genome's cryptic language

27.02.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>