In a plenary talk on Tuesday 17 April at the Royal Astronomical Society National Astronomy Meeting in Preston, Dr James Klimchuk of the Naval Research Laboratory in the USA will present the latest results from the STEREO and Hinode spacecraft, two missions that have been studying the Sun for the last few months.
STEREO is a NASA-led mission with substantial participation by scientists from the UK and other European countries. It consists of two spacecraft watching the Sun from different vantage points, that will eventually allow astronomers look at the whole of the region between the Sun and the Earth for the first time and eventually allow them to construct 3D images of the Sun. Hinode is a Japanese mission with collaboration from scientists in the US and UK. It orbits the Earth in a path that gives the probe a continuous view of the Sun.
One of the key objectives of the two missions is to study solar outbursts. These involve the sudden release of energy stored in the magnetic fields of the corona, the hot material that makes up the outer atmosphere of the Sun. The smallest events or nanoflares heat the corona to a temperature of millions of degrees and cause the emission of X-ray and ultra-violet radiation that changes the upper atmosphere of the Earth. The largest Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are spectacular and can cause storms in the Earth’s magnetic field.
Together, STEREO and Hinode give astronomers the ability to watch CMEs all the way from the Sun to the Earth. Scientists can watch their evolution as they interact with the outflow of particles from the Sun (the solar wind) en-route to our planet. CMEs are the most dramatic ‘space weather’ events and can cause damage to technological systems such as power grids and communication and navigation networks. The severity of the impact of a CME depends on how it changes as it makes the journey across the inner Solar system and the new missions allow astronomers to better understand how these outbursts evolve.
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A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
In order to observe the ultrafast electron motion in the inner shells of atoms with short light pulses, the pulses must not only be ultrashort, but very...
A group of researchers led by Andrea Cavalleri at the Max Planck Institute for Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) in Hamburg has demonstrated a new method enabling precise measurements of the interatomic forces that hold crystalline solids together. The paper Probing the Interatomic Potential of Solids by Strong-Field Nonlinear Phononics, published online in Nature, explains how a terahertz-frequency laser pulse can drive very large deformations of the crystal.
By measuring the highly unusual atomic trajectories under extreme electromagnetic transients, the MPSD group could reconstruct how rigid the atomic bonds are...
Quantum computers may one day solve algorithmic problems which even the biggest supercomputers today can’t manage. But how do you test a quantum computer to...
For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
In the self-assembly process, the semiconducting polymer arranges itself into an ordered monolayer in a transistor. The transistors are binary switches used...
Breakthrough provides a new concept of the design of molecular motors, sensors and electricity generators at nanoscale
Researchers from the Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry of the CAS (IOCB Prague), Institute of Physics of the CAS (IP CAS) and Palacký University...
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