Chavdarian and Sumner have studied cracks and fins in the sulfate-rich sands at White Sands National Monument in New Mexico. These features look remarkably similar to features seen by the Opportunity Mars Rover. Working at White Sands and in the lab, Chavdarian found that these features only form in sulfate sand when it is damp. The work was published earlier this year in the journal Geology.
The presence of flowing liquid water at the surface demonstrates that Mars has an active hydrologic cycle that includes significant water exchange between the subsurface and the surface, Sumner said.
“Even though liquid water is only transiently at the surface, it probably provided some water vapor to the atmosphere through evaporation and may have produced hydrous salts in surface sediments. Such hydrous sulfate salts have been inferred to be present at both MER rover sites, with the sedimentary rocks observed by Opportunity at Meridiani Planum containing more than 50% sulfates. Graduate student Greg Chavdarian and I proposed that some of the fracturing in rocks observed by Opportunity might be due to water cycling between these hydrous minerals and the atmosphere based on similar features in sulfate dunes at White Sands,” she said.
Sumner and Chavdarian have been testing their hypothesis by monitoring water cycling in the dunes at White Sands, but it has been difficult to extend their observations to match Martian conditions because of the view that the planet is so dry. But this new work suggests that a much wetter view of the planet will emerge, Sumner said.
The presence of flowing water on the surface of Mars raises many exciting possibilities for looking for life on Mars, Sumner said.
“Life does not persist in the absence of liquid water, so many astrobiologists interested in evaluating whether or not life ever existed on Mars have focused on looking for evidence of life in ancient rocks (fossil life) or have worked towards being able to drill into the subsurface of Mars to depths where liquid water may be present. Before today, we have had scant evidence that liquid water was present at depth. Now we do. And not only do we know that liquid water exists, we know that it flows to the surface, at least locally.
“The transient presence of liquid water at the surface suggests that we may not have to go into the subsurface to look for life; evidence of life or life itself might be carried to the surface by this flowing water. The water evaporates or infiltrates rapidly enough that life is unlikely to persist on the surface, but these gullies provide us with a signal from an environment within the planet that is more likely to host life than the surface.
“The presence of liquid water does not mean that life exists on Mars, but liquid water is essential for life,” Sumner said.
Andy Fell | EurekAlert!
Solar wind impacts on giant 'space hurricanes' may affect satellite safety
19.09.2017 | Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University
Integrated lasers on different surfaces
19.09.2017 | The Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR)
Using ultrafast flashes of laser and x-ray radiation, scientists at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching, Germany) took snapshots of the briefest electron motion inside a solid material to date. The electron motion lasted only 750 billionths of the billionth of a second before it fainted, setting a new record of human capability to capture ultrafast processes inside solids!
When x-rays shine onto solid materials or large molecules, an electron is pushed away from its original place near the nucleus of the atom, leaving a hole...
For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. The researchers were able to prove their findings using unique quantum sensors that were developed at Basel University and that can analyze electromagnetic fields on the nanometer scale. The results – obtained by scientists from the University of Basel’s Department of Physics, the Swiss Nanoscience Institute, the University of Montpellier and several laboratories from University Paris-Saclay – were recently published in the journal Nature.
Multiferroics are materials that simultaneously react to electric and magnetic fields. These two properties are rarely found together, and their combined...
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems Holding GmbH about commercial use of a multi-well tissue plate for automated and reliable tissue engineering & drug testing.
MBM ScienceBridge GmbH successfully negotiated a license agreement between University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG) and the biotech company Tissue Systems...
Pathogenic bacteria are becoming resistant to common antibiotics to an ever increasing degree. One of the most difficult germs is Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a...
Scientists from the MPI for Chemical Energy Conversion report in the first issue of the new journal JOULE.
Cell Press has just released the first issue of Joule, a new journal dedicated to sustainable energy research. In this issue James Birrell, Olaf Rüdiger,...
12.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
06.09.2017 | Event News
19.09.2017 | Earth Sciences
19.09.2017 | Materials Sciences
19.09.2017 | Physics and Astronomy