For his work, Field received the Department of Physics and Astronomy Stoddard Prize for the best thesis of 2006. His supervisor, department chair Arie Bodek, won the 2004 American Physical Society's Panofsky Prize for measuring the distribution of quarks inside protons and neutrons. Bodek's doctoral thesis provided the evidence of the quark's existence and was the basis for the 1990 Nobel Prize in physics.
There are six types of quarks: up, down, strange, charm, bottom/beauty, and top/truth. Particles with three quarks are called baryons, the most common of which are protons and neutrons. A proton has an up-up-down combination, while a neutron consists of down-down-up.
Scientists have observed many baryons, but combinations including the heavy bottom quark have remained elusive because they are difficult to produce: a lot of energy is required to create these heavier particles. In fact, until the evidence announced today by the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) group, scientists had observed only one type of baryon with a bottom quark. CDF physicists now have evidence of two more types of baryons, one with an up-up-bottom combination, the other with down-down-bottom. These can be thought of as a proton and neutron with the third quark replaced by a bottom quark.
Fermilab's Tevatron collider hurls protons and antiprotons through a four-mile circular accelerator close to the speed of light. Billions of particles smash together, releasing an enormous amount of energy, which creates other particles such as the two newly discovered baryons.
Analyzing the Tevatron data, physicists observed approximately seventy up-up-bottom particles and seventy down-down-bottom particles. As predicted by theory, the new particles decay within a tiny fraction of a second and have a mass of about six times that of a regular proton.
Rochester faculty who are members of the CDF group include professors Bodek and Kevin McFarland, and senior scientists Willis Sakumoto, Howard Budd, and Pawel de Barbaro. Field started his research with the Rochester CDF group by spending a summer as an REU (Research Experience for Undergraduates) student at Fermilab and continued his work during the academic year.
As professor Bodek says, "The discovery fills another open spot in the periodic table of baryons and verifies the power of the standard model of particles and forces. The University of Rochester is very proud of Scott Field's contribution."
For additional information about the discovery, see the Fermilab press release at http://www.fnal.gov/pub/presspass/press_releases/sigma-b-baryon.html.
Lois Gresh | EurekAlert!
Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging
17.10.2017 | American Association for the Advancement of Science
Filling the early universe with knots can explain why the world is three-dimensional
17.10.2017 | Vanderbilt University
Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.
Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....
Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).
When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...
Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.
How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...
Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.
It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...
It's possible to produce hydrogen to power fuel cells by extracting the gas from seawater, but the electricity required to do it makes the process costly. UCF...
17.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
10.10.2017 | Event News
17.10.2017 | Life Sciences
17.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy
17.10.2017 | Life Sciences