Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Astronomers find hundreds of young, distant galaxy clusters

07.06.2006


Astronomers have found the largest number of the most distant, youngest galaxy clusters yet, a feat that will help them observe the developing universe when it was less than half its current age and still in its formative stages.



The team of astronomers from the University of Florida, NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has found nearly 300 new galaxy clusters and groups, including nearly 100 at distances of eight to 10 billion light years. The new sample, a six-fold increase in the number of known clusters and groups at such extreme distances, will allow astronomers to study very young galaxies two-thirds of the way back to when the universe is believed to have originated in the Big Bang.

The team will present its findings today in Calgary, Canada, at the American Astronomical Society’s biannual meeting.


Anthony Gonzalez, an assistant professor of astronomy at UF and one of the team of astronomers who made the discovery, likened the view of the clusters to a glimpse at the Los Angeles basin when it was still home only to a collection of dusty, small towns. By knowing what the clusters looked like eight to 10 billion years ago, the astronomers will have a better idea of where and when the first stars and galaxies formed and how they grew and changed over the universe’s full 13.7 billion- year lifespan.

“It would be like taking a snapshot of cities as they were near the beginning,” he said. “You’re watching everything fall together, so you can see some of the pieces, some of the little towns, before they become part of a giant city.”

Galaxy clusters are among the universe’s most dense places, similar to cities on Earth, and a single galaxy cluster can contain hundreds of large galaxies similar to our Milky Way.

The most massive, oldest galaxies tend to be found in galaxy clusters. This makes clusters the best place to look to determine when the first stars formed and how these galaxies grew with time. While individual galaxy clusters have previously been found at similar distances, this is the first time that such a large number of galaxy clusters has been detected so far away.

Gonzalez said the astronomers’ key step in finding the large number of clusters was to merge infrared data from NASA’s Spitzer Space telescope with existing deep optical imaging obtained by National Optical Astronomy Observatory Deep Wide-Field Survey team at Kitt Peak National Observatory in Arizona.

The team used the Spitzer telescope to make infrared mosaics, a process that was thousands of times faster than with the biggest ground-based telescopes because of the Spitzer telescope’s unique capabilities. The combined Kitt Peak and Spitzer data provided information on the distances to the galaxies, enabling the astronomers to weed out small, nearby galaxies whose light was cluttering the view between the observers and the most distant clusters. Gonzalez’s main role was to analyze the maps of massive galaxies and detect the hidden galaxy clusters.

“We’re basically getting rid of all the junk to isolate the most distant, massive galaxies,” Gonzalez said.

The research will allow astronomers to embark on several new studies, said Mark Brodwin, an astronomer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the lead investigator on the team.

“Clusters of galaxies are the repositories of the most massive galaxies in the universe,” he said. “As such, our survey serves as an ideal laboratory in which to study the process of massive galaxy formation over the last two-thirds of the lifetime of the universe.”

The next step is to study the newly discovered galaxies in detail, Brodwin said. Astronomers want to learn more about their size, shape, mass and the rate at which they form new stars and merge together to form larger galaxies. “These key measurements will improve our fundamental understanding of the galaxy formation process,” he said.

NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, based in Pasadena, Calif., manages the Spitzer Space Telescope mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate. Science operations are conducted at the Spitzer Science Center at the California Institute of Technology, also in Pasadena. JPL is a division of Caltech.

Anthony Gonzalez | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.ufl.edu
http://www.astro.ufl.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Astronomers release most complete ultraviolet-light survey of nearby galaxies
18.05.2018 | NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center

nachricht A quantum entanglement between two physically separated ultra-cold atomic clouds
17.05.2018 | University of the Basque Country

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

Im Focus: Computer-Designed Customized Regenerative Heart Valves

Cardiovascular tissue engineering aims to treat heart disease with prostheses that grow and regenerate. Now, researchers from the University of Zurich, the Technical University Eindhoven and the Charité Berlin have successfully implanted regenerative heart valves, designed with the aid of computer simulations, into sheep for the first time.

Producing living tissue or organs based on human cells is one of the main research fields in regenerative medicine. Tissue engineering, which involves growing...

Im Focus: Light-induced superconductivity under high pressure

A team of scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg investigated optically-induced superconductivity in the alkali-doped fulleride K3C60under high external pressures. This study allowed, on one hand, to uniquely assess the nature of the transient state as a superconducting phase. In addition, it unveiled the possibility to induce superconductivity in K3C60 at temperatures far above the -170 degrees Celsius hypothesized previously, and rather all the way to room temperature. The paper by Cantaluppi et al has been published in Nature Physics.

Unlike ordinary metals, superconductors have the unique capability of transporting electrical currents without any loss. Nowadays, their technological...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Supersonic waves may help electronics beat the heat

18.05.2018 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Keeping a Close Eye on Ice Loss

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

CrowdWater: An App for Flood Research

18.05.2018 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>