Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

’Cosmic telescopes’ may have found infant galaxies

07.06.2006


Using massive clusters of galaxies as "cosmic telescopes," a research team led by a Johns Hopkins University astronomer has found what may be infant galaxies born in the first billion years after the beginning of the universe.


Figure 1. (Abell 2218) The figure shows a three color image of the massive cluster of galaxies Abell 2218 taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys in the Hubble Space Telescope. The distance to the cluster is approximately 2.5 billion light years. The blue arcs are star-forming galaxies that are behind the cluster approximately half way across the Universe. This is a beautiful example of a "cosmic telescope". Credit: H. Ford (JHU), W. Zheng (JHU), L. Infante (PUC), V. Motta(PUC, JHU), M. Postman (STScI), G. Illingworth (UCSC), M. Jee (JHU), R. White (STScI), N. Benitez (IAA), T. Broadhurst (Tel-Aviv Univ.), and NASA



If these findings are confirmed, the extra magnification provided by these gargantuan natural telescopes will have given astronomers their best-ever view of galaxies as they formed in the early universe, more than 12 billion years ago, said Holland Ford, a professor in the Henry A. Rowland Department of Physics and Astronomy at the university’s Krieger School of Arts and Sciences. Ford is the head of the Hubble Space Telescope’s Advanced Camera for Surveys Science Team, which also includes researchers from the Space Telescope Science Institute, PUC in Chile, and other universities around the world.

Ford announced the team’s results this morning at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. The team’s spectroscopic observations were made possible, he said, by gravitational lensing, the bending of light caused by gravity’s warping of space in the presence of such massive objects as clusters of galaxies.


"One of Einstein’s most startling predictions was that a gravitation field can be thought of as a distortion of space and time," Ford said. "Gravitational lensing by massive clusters of galaxies that have about 1 million billion times more mass than the sun provide one of the most striking confirmations of Einstein’s prediction."

Our view of distant galaxies behind a cluster can be magnified by amounts that vary from barely detectable to as many as 50 or 100 times normal size, depending on the location of the galaxy and the distribution of mass within the cluster, Ford said. The clusters are, in effect, giant cosmic telescopes that allow astronomers to find and study distant galaxies that otherwise would be too faint to study.

"Astronomers want to know when the first galaxies formed, how large and how bright galaxies are at birth, and how galaxies grow into large mature galaxies like our home Milky Way galaxy," Ford said. "Our team is searching for infant galaxies that are less than a billion years old by comparing images of strongly lensing clusters taken by the Hubble Space Telescope with images of the same clusters taken by the Magellan, the Very Large Telescopes (VLT), and Gemini telescopes. The infant galaxies are so far away their light is almost or entirely redshifted to wavelengths that cannot be detected with Hubble’s Advanced Camera for Surveys, but can be detected with infrared detectors on the world’s largest telescopes."

Using this technique, the ACS team has searched for infant galaxies behind 14 lensing clusters. If longer spectroscopic observations of the three brightest candidate galaxies confirm that they are indeed in the early universe, these galaxies will provide astronomers their clearest view yet of the youngest galaxies ever seen.

Today’s presentation is based on the AAS Abstract 66.03 "Bright Candidates of Galaxies at Redshift 7-8 in the ACS Cluster Fields" by Wei Zheng1, H. Ford1, L. Infante2, V. Motta1,2, M. Postman3, and the ACS Science Team. (1Johns Hopkins University, 2PUC, Chile, 3Space Telescope Science Institute.)

The ACS was developed under NASA contract NAS5-32865, and this research was supported by NASA grant NAG5-7697. These results are based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile; the Las Campanas Magellan Telescopes in Chile; and Gemini North, a telescope operated by the Gemini Observatory/Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy.

Lisa DeNike | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.jhu.edu

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht One-way roads for spin currents
23.05.2018 | Singapore University of Technology and Design

nachricht Tunable diamond string may hold key to quantum memory
23.05.2018 | Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: LZH showcases laser material processing of tomorrow at the LASYS 2018

At the LASYS 2018, from June 5th to 7th, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) will be showcasing processes for the laser material processing of tomorrow in hall 4 at stand 4E75. With blown bomb shells the LZH will present first results of a research project on civil security.

At this year's LASYS, the LZH will exhibit light-based processes such as cutting, welding, ablation and structuring as well as additive manufacturing for...

Im Focus: Self-illuminating pixels for a new display generation

There are videos on the internet that can make one marvel at technology. For example, a smartphone is casually bent around the arm or a thin-film display is rolled in all directions and with almost every diameter. From the user's point of view, this looks fantastic. From a professional point of view, however, the question arises: Is that already possible?

At Display Week 2018, scientists from the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP will be demonstrating today’s technological possibilities and...

Im Focus: Explanation for puzzling quantum oscillations has been found

So-called quantum many-body scars allow quantum systems to stay out of equilibrium much longer, explaining experiment | Study published in Nature Physics

Recently, researchers from Harvard and MIT succeeded in trapping a record 53 atoms and individually controlling their quantum state, realizing what is called a...

Im Focus: Dozens of binaries from Milky Way's globular clusters could be detectable by LISA

Next-generation gravitational wave detector in space will complement LIGO on Earth

The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. A...

Im Focus: Entangled atoms shine in unison

A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. This fundamental demonstration could lead to the development of highly sensitive optical gradiometers for the precise measurement of the gravitational field or the earth's magnetic field.

The age of quantum technology has long been heralded. Decades of research into the quantum world have led to the development of methods that make it possible...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

VideoLinks
Industry & Economy
Event News

Save the date: Forum European Neuroscience – 07-11 July 2018 in Berlin, Germany

02.05.2018 | Event News

Invitation to the upcoming "Current Topics in Bioinformatics: Big Data in Genomics and Medicine"

13.04.2018 | Event News

Unique scope of UV LED technologies and applications presented in Berlin: ICULTA-2018

12.04.2018 | Event News

 
Latest News

Research reveals how order first appears in liquid crystals

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

Space-like gravity weakens biochemical signals in muscle formation

23.05.2018 | Life Sciences

NIST puts the optical microscope under the microscope to achieve atomic accuracy

23.05.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>