Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:


Livermore researchers shed new light on the physical properties of carbon


A team based in Livermore has shed some new light on the phase diagram of carbon at high pressure and temperature.

Graphic simulation of the electronic wave function (MLWF) in liquid carbon at a temperature of 9,000°Kelvin and five million atmospheres of pressure, showing a persistent covalent bonding even under these extreme conditions. At this pressure diamond melts at about 8,000°K.

In particular, the authors determined the solid/liquid and solid/solid phase boundaries for pressures up to 20 million Earth atmospheres and more than 10,000 degrees Kelvin. The simulations provide results on the physical properties of carbon, which are of great importance for devising models of Neptune, Uranus and white dwarf stars, as well as of extrasolar carbon-rich planets.

In its elemental form, carbon is found in coal, graphite, diamond, bucky balls and nanotubes. These are materials with very different properties, yet at the microscopic level they only differ by the geometrical arrangements of carbon atoms.

Elemental carbon has been known since prehistory, and one of its best known forms, diamond, is thought to have been first mined in India more than 2,000 years ago. The properties of diamond and its practical and technological applications have been extensively investigated for many centuries.

Despite important experimental work over the last few decades aimed at studying compressed diamond, the phase boundaries and melting properties of elemental carbon are poorly known, and its electronic properties under extreme conditions are not well understood. Experimental data are scarce because of difficulties in reaching megabar (one million atmospheres) pressures and temperature regimes of thousands of degrees Kelvin in the laboratory.

The research team is composed of Alfredo Correa, Stanimir Bonev and Giulia Galli, all of whom were at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) at the time the work began. Galli is now a professor at UC Davis, and Bonev is an assistant professor at Dalhousie University in Canada.

“Our results show a consistent description of elemental carbon in a broad range of temperature and pressures and a description of its electronic properties within the same framework,” said Correa, a Student Employee Graduate Research Fellowship (SEGRF) student from UC Berkeley who works in LLNL’s Quantum Simulations Group in the Physics and Advanced Technology Directorate. Correa is the lead author of a paper on the recent findings that appears in the online version of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences for the week of Jan. 23-27.

The researchers also discovered that the diamond/BC8/liquid triple point (the temperature and pressure at which these three phases coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium) is at a lower pressure than previously thought (BC8 denotes a solid phase of carbon into which diamond transforms above 12 megabar at zero temperature). The conditions at which the triple point is found are close to recent estimates of the core conditions (temperature and pressure) in Neptune and Uranus.

“Our simulation results call for a partial revision of current planetary models, especially for the description of their core regions,” Correa said. “Our computational work also may help us interpret future experimental work.”

Founded in 1952, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has a mission to ensure national security and to apply science and technology to the important issues of our time. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is managed by the University of California for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration.

Anne Stark | EurekAlert!
Further information:

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Sharpening the X-ray view of the nanocosm
23.03.2018 | Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics

nachricht Drug or duplicate?
23.03.2018 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Angewandte Festkörperphysik IAF

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Space observation with radar to secure Germany's space infrastructure

Satellites in near-Earth orbit are at risk due to the steady increase in space debris. But their mission in the areas of telecommunications, navigation or weather forecasts is essential for society. Fraunhofer FHR therefore develops radar-based systems which allow the detection, tracking and cataloging of even the smallest particles of debris. Satellite operators who have access to our data are in a better position to plan evasive maneuvers and prevent destructive collisions. From April, 25-29 2018, Fraunhofer FHR and its partners will exhibit the complementary radar systems TIRA and GESTRA as well as the latest radar techniques for space observation across three stands at the ILA Berlin.

The "traffic situation" in space is very tense: the Earth is currently being orbited not only by countless satellites but also by a large volume of space...

Im Focus: Researchers Discover New Anti-Cancer Protein

An international team of researchers has discovered a new anti-cancer protein. The protein, called LHPP, prevents the uncontrolled proliferation of cancer cells in the liver. The researchers led by Prof. Michael N. Hall from the Biozentrum, University of Basel, report in “Nature” that LHPP can also serve as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of liver cancer.

The incidence of liver cancer, also known as hepatocellular carcinoma, is steadily increasing. In the last twenty years, the number of cases has almost doubled...

Im Focus: Researchers at Fraunhofer monitor re-entry of Chinese space station Tiangong-1

In just a few weeks from now, the Chinese space station Tiangong-1 will re-enter the Earth's atmosphere where it will to a large extent burn up. It is possible that some debris will reach the Earth's surface. Tiangong-1 is orbiting the Earth uncontrolled at a speed of approx. 29,000 km/h.Currently the prognosis relating to the time of impact currently lies within a window of several days. The scientists at Fraunhofer FHR have already been monitoring Tiangong-1 for a number of weeks with their TIRA system, one of the most powerful space observation radars in the world, with a view to supporting the German Space Situational Awareness Center and the ESA with their re-entry forecasts.

Following the loss of radio contact with Tiangong-1 in 2016 and due to the low orbital height, it is now inevitable that the Chinese space station will...

Im Focus: Alliance „OLED Licht Forum“ – Key partner for OLED lighting solutions

Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP, provider of research and development services for OLED lighting solutions, announces the founding of the “OLED Licht Forum” and presents latest OLED design and lighting solutions during light+building, from March 18th – 23rd, 2018 in Frankfurt a.M./Germany, at booth no. F91 in Hall 4.0.

They are united in their passion for OLED (organic light emitting diodes) lighting with all of its unique facets and application possibilities. Thus experts in...

Im Focus: Mars' oceans formed early, possibly aided by massive volcanic eruptions

Oceans formed before Tharsis and evolved together, shaping climate history of Mars

A new scenario seeking to explain how Mars' putative oceans came and went over the last 4 billion years implies that the oceans formed several hundred million...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>



Industry & Economy
Event News

New solar solutions for sustainable buildings and cities

23.03.2018 | Event News

Virtual reality conference comes to Reutlingen

19.03.2018 | Event News

Ultrafast Wireless and Chip Design at the DATE Conference in Dresden

16.03.2018 | Event News

Latest News

For graphite pellets, just add elbow grease

23.03.2018 | Materials Sciences

Unique communication strategy discovered in stem cell pathway controlling plant growth

23.03.2018 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

Sharpening the X-ray view of the nanocosm

23.03.2018 | Physics and Astronomy

Science & Research
Overview of more VideoLinks >>>