Permanent magnets are important in a broad variety of commercial technologies, from car starters to alternators for wind power generation to computer hard drives. Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energys Argonne National Laboratory have found new clues into ways to make those magnets longer-lasting and more powerful.
Using the Western Hemispheres most powerful X-rays at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne, the researchers were able to see new details of rare-earth ions, a critical component of permanent magnets. The examination of the ions, probing their magnetism with unprecedented resolution, revealed that the presence of rare-earth ions in more than one atomic environment reduces the magnetic stability of the best-performing permanent magnets to date. This knowledge will enable manufacturers to manipulate the rare-earth ion atomic structure for optimization of future magnets. The research is published this week in Physical Review Letters.
Rare-earth ions come from metallic elements that share similar chemical properties; they are not especially rare, but they are used sparingly because of the high cost in preparation of the materials. Rare-earth ions play an important role in determining magnetic stability again demagnetizing fields, and therefore in magnet performance.
Catherine Foster | EurekAlert!
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A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. This has made it possible to observe the interaction of multiple photons in a single such pulse with electrons in the inner orbital shell of an atom.
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For the first time, a team of researchers at the Max-Planck Institute (MPI) for Polymer Research in Mainz, Germany, has succeeded in making an integrated circuit (IC) from just a monolayer of a semiconducting polymer via a bottom-up, self-assembly approach.
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