Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

UA team heads for launch of mars reconnaissance orbiter and hirise

02.08.2005


NASA plans to launch a new orbiter called Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) on Aug. 10 as the next step in its ambitious Mars exploration program.

MRO will return more data about the red planet than all previous Mars missions combined, according to the U.S. space agency. More than 40 University of Arizona researchers, family members and friends leave for NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida next week to cheer the launch. The soon-to-fly orbiter payload includes UA’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) -- the largest-diameter telescopic camera ever sent to another planet.

"HiRISE is going to both resolve old mysteries and raise new questions about Mars," said HiRISE principal investigator Alfred S. McEwen of UA’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. "It’s also going to address specific questions related to future Mars exploration."

HiRISE, two other cameras, a spectrometer, a radar instrument and a radiometer aboard MRO will examine Mars from the top of its atmosphere to its underground layers. Scientists will use MRO to study the history and distribution of martian water, characterize landing sites for future missions -- including UA’s 2007 Phoenix Mission to Mars -- and provide a high-data-rate communications relay between Mars lander missions and Earth. Professor McEwen and his team will plan HiRISE observations, upload commands, monitor instrument performance, retrieve, process and analyze image data at the HiRISE Operations Center, called "HiROC," located in the Lunar and Planetary Lab’s Sonett Building on the UA campus in Tucson.

"The HiRISE team is more than excited to see the successful launch of MRO," HiRISE co-investigator and HiROC manager Eric Eliason said. " We’ve invested a lot of hard work to ensure HiRISE is the best possible camera for this mission. We’ve been practicing and rehearsing how to command our instrument. We’ve been developing software to process and analyze returned images and now we’re looking forward to finally having some real images of Mars."

The 145-pound (65 kg) HiRISE camera - the largest instrument on the MRO payload - features a 20-inch (half-meter) primary mirror - the largest on any telescope ever sent beyond Earth orbit. HiRISE will take ultra-sharp photographs over 3.5-mile (6 kilometer) swaths of the martian landscape, resolving rocks and other geologic features as small as 40 inches (one meter) across. It will take pictures in stereo and color, too, while it zooms along at more than 7,800 mph (3 and 1/2 km per second) about 190 miles (300 km) above Mars’ surface.

"HiRISE is capable of getting such views over any selected region of Mars, providing a bridge between orbital remote sensing and landed missions," McEwen said. MRO’s planned orbit is more than 20 percent lower than the average for any of the three current Mars orbiters, which are NASA’s Mars Odyssey and Mars Global Surveyor, and the European Space Agency’s Mars Express. Low orbit is an advantage when it comes to seeing Mars at higher resolution than ever before.

The orbiter will reach Mars in March 2006. The spacecraft will gradually adjust its elliptical orbit to a circular orbit by aerobraking, a technique that creates drag using the friction of careful dips into the planet’s upper atmosphere. MRO’s 25-month primary science phase begins in November 2006. HiROC researchers say they expect to process 1,000 gigantic high-resolution images and 9,000 smaller high-resolution images during the science phase of the MRO mission.

"These are huge images, and we’ve been developing techniques to deal with images as large as 20,000 pixels wide and 60,000 pixels long," McEwen said. It would take 1,200 typical computer screens to display all of a large HiRISE image at full resolution. HiROC will acquire a large-format printer for making photographs up to five feet wide and 10-to-15 feet long, McEwen added. The HiRISE team has also been developing HiWeb, an Internet site that expert Mars scientists and the general public worldwide can use to suggest HiRISE imaging targets. HiRISE is called "the people’s camera" because anyone can suggest places on Mars for HiRISE to photograph and because the images will be made publicly available as soon as possible.

Operations staff member Ingrid Daubar and senior software developer Christian Schaller suggested a people-friendly metaphor for what they will do at HiROC. "Basically, you can think of what we do as aiming and focusing the HiRISE camera, pushing the button to take a picture, downloading the pictures to our computers and then processing the pictures," Daubar said. "Of course, it’s really much more complicated than that." The first milestone after launch will be when McEwen and the HiRISE team make their first observations of actual targets in the solar system on Sept. 8, 2005. They have targeted Earth’s moon and the Omega Centauri star cluster to calibrate HiRISE and check its in-flight performance. It may take several days for the big images to arrive at HiROC.

What will HiRISE look at first when the science mission begins in November 2006?

First planned targets include candidate landing sites for the 2007 Phoenix Mission to Mars, led by Peter Smith of UA’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory. "We actually have only a limited time before winter arrives at Mars’ north pole and lighting conditions deteriorate, so we want to do that quickly," McEwen said.

And if Spirit and Opportunity are still roving, photographing the Mars Expedition Rover landing sites is very high priority, McEwen said. Views of past Mars mission landing sites -- the successful Pathfinder and Viking missions, and possibly the unsuccessful Mars Polar Lander and Beagle 2 landing sites -- are also of interest, he added. Then HiRISE will tackle a huge list of science priorities, McEwen said. MRO weighs more than two tons fully fueled. To loft so big a spacecraft, NASA will use a powerful Atlas V launch vehicle for the first time on an interplanetary mission.

The mission is managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, is the prime contractor for the project and built the spacecraft. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. of Boulder, Colo., designed, built and tested the $40 million HiRISE camera.

Alfred S. McEwen | University of Arizona
Further information:
http://hirise.lpl.arizona.edu
http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/mro/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Study offers new theoretical approach to describing non-equilibrium phase transitions
27.04.2017 | DOE/Argonne National Laboratory

nachricht SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history
26.04.2017 | Southwest Research Institute

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Fighting drug resistant tuberculosis – InfectoGnostics meets MYCO-NET² partners in Peru

28.04.2017 | Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

How Plants Form Their Sugar Transport Routes

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

Protein 'spy' gains new abilities

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers unravel the social network of immune cells

28.04.2017 | Life Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>