Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Bottom quarks reveal something of their identity

07.07.2005


Dutch researcher Bram Wijngaarden investigated how bottom quarks are created during collisions between protons and antiprotons. Wijngaarden’s measurements have contributed to a better understanding of the theory, and can be used to explain why the production of these quarks during such collisions is higher than had originally been expected.



Bram Wijngaarden investigated the creation of bottom quarks using the D zero experiment of the particle accelerator at the Fermi lab in Chicago, United States. In this Tevatron particle accelerator, protons and antiprotons collide with each other. Bottom quarks are created as a result of the strong nuclear force that arises during these collisions. In the 1990s measurements with the Tevatron particle accelerator and with the Hera particle accelerator in Hamburg revealed that the production of bottom quarks was higher than had been theoretically predicted. Since then theoretical physicists have done a lot of work to explain the difference. Wijngaarden’s measurements must reveal whether the theory provides a good description of the reality.

Bottom quarks


Bottom quarks are created during high-energy collisions between particles. The bottom quark is one of six quarks. Together with the top quark it is one of the heaviest quarks. These quarks are only found under extreme circumstances, such as during collisions between particles. After the collision the bottom quarks decay into other particles. Measuring devices detect the electrical signals left behind by the particles. Signals from the decay products of the bottom quarks can be distinguished from the other particles released because bottom quarks are heavier and on average breakdown slightly less quickly.

By measuring the angle between two bottom quarks from the same collision, Wijngaarden could study the strong nuclear force directly. This angle was measured as the angle between the avalanches from the decay products of the bottom quarks. In the first-order approach, the theory predicts that the two bottom quarks always move apart from each other at an angle of 180 degrees. Wijngaarden showed that in a number of cases the angle is much smaller. The second-order approach predicts that the angle is much smaller in a number of cases but the average size of the angle measured by the researcher differed from the result obtained using this approach. The strong nuclear force can be tested more accurately with new measurements made with the help of methods developed by Wijngaarden.

Bram Wijngaarden’s research was funded by NWO.

Dr Bram Wijngaarden | EurekAlert!
Further information:
http://www.hef.ru.nl

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Significantly more productivity in USP lasers
06.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik ILT

nachricht Shape matters when light meets atom
05.12.2016 | Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

How to turn white fat brown

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>