Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ancient floods on Mars: where Iani Chaos opens into Ares Vallis

02.06.2005


New images, taken by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) aboard ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft, show a large depression called Iani Chaos and the upper reaches of a large outflow channel called Ares Vallis.

To see images go to: www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMIKO0DU8E_0.html

Image strips were taken in October 2004, during three orbits from a 350-kilometre altitude, with a resolution of 15 metres per pixel. The strips have then been matched to a mosaic that covers an area from 17.5º western longitude to 3º North. The Iani Chaos depression – 180 kilometres long and 200 kilometres wide – is connected to the beginning of Ares Vallis by a 100-kilometre wide transition zone.



From here, Ares Vallis continues its course for about 1400 kilometres through the ancient Xanthe Terra highlands, bordered by valley flanks up to 2000 metres high. Eventually Ares Vallis empties into Chryse Planitia.
These images help illuminate the complex geological history of Mars. Ares Vallis is one of several big outflow channels on Mars in this region that formed billions of years ago. Many surface features suggest that erosion of large water flows had carved Ares Vallis in the Martian landscape.

Most likely gigantic floods ran downhill, carving a deep canyon into Xanthe Terra. Rocks eroded from the valley flanks were milled into smaller fractions and transported in the running water.

Finally this sedimentary load was deposited far north at the mouth of Ares Vallis in the Chryse plains, where NASA’s Mars Pathfinder landed in 1997 to search for traces of water with its small Sojourner rover.

The scenes displayed in the images show the transition zone between Iani Chaos and Ares Vallis. A chaotic distribution of individual blocks of rock and hills forms a disrupted pattern. These ‘knobs’ are several hundred metres high. Scientists suggest that they are remnants of a preexisting landscape that collapsed after cavities had formed beneath the surface.

The elongated curvature of features extending from south to north along with terraces, streamlined ’islands’ and the smooth, flat surface in the valley centre are strong hints that it was running water that carved the valley.

Ice stored in possible cavities in the Martian highland might have been melted by volcanic heat. Pouring out, the melting water would have followed the pre-existing topography to the northern lowlands.

A hundred kilometres further, a ten-kilometre-wide valley arm merges into Ares Vallis from the west. Large amounts of water originating from Aram Chaos (outside the image) joined the stream of Ares Vallis. Fan-shaped deposits on the valley floor are the remnants of landslides at the northern flanks.

At the freshly eroded cliffs possible lava layers are visible: such layers are found almost everywhere in Xanthe Terra. Further downstream, another valley branch enters Ares Vallis from the east after passing through an eroded impact crater in Xanthe Terra. West of Ares Vallis, a subtler riverbed is running parallel to the main valley.

A black-and-white overview (bottom image) was imaged by the nadir (vertical view) channel. The orthogonal colour scenes (third image, above) were processed using the three colour channels and the nadir channel.
The perspective views (images one, six and eight) were derived from the digital terrain model based on the stereo channels, and then combined with the colour channels.

The anaglyph or stereoscopic image (fifth image, below) was processed from the nadir and one stereo channel. Image resolution have been reduced for use on the internet. The flyover video is based on the digital terrain model from the stereo channels and the colour data.

Monica Talevi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMIKO0DU8E_0.html

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light
23.10.2017 | Chalmers University of Technology

nachricht Creation of coherent states in molecules by incoherent electrons
23.10.2017 | Tata Institute of Fundamental Research

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Salmonella as a tumour medication

HZI researchers developed a bacterial strain that can be used in cancer therapy

Salmonellae are dangerous pathogens that enter the body via contaminated food and can cause severe infections. But these bacteria are also known to target...

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

3rd Symposium on Driving Simulation

23.10.2017 | Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Microfluidics probe 'cholesterol' of the oil industry

23.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Gamma rays will reach beyond the limits of light

23.10.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

The end of pneumonia? New vaccine offers hope

23.10.2017 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>