Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Ancient floods on Mars: where Iani Chaos opens into Ares Vallis

02.06.2005


New images, taken by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) aboard ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft, show a large depression called Iani Chaos and the upper reaches of a large outflow channel called Ares Vallis.

To see images go to: www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMIKO0DU8E_0.html

Image strips were taken in October 2004, during three orbits from a 350-kilometre altitude, with a resolution of 15 metres per pixel. The strips have then been matched to a mosaic that covers an area from 17.5º western longitude to 3º North. The Iani Chaos depression – 180 kilometres long and 200 kilometres wide – is connected to the beginning of Ares Vallis by a 100-kilometre wide transition zone.



From here, Ares Vallis continues its course for about 1400 kilometres through the ancient Xanthe Terra highlands, bordered by valley flanks up to 2000 metres high. Eventually Ares Vallis empties into Chryse Planitia.
These images help illuminate the complex geological history of Mars. Ares Vallis is one of several big outflow channels on Mars in this region that formed billions of years ago. Many surface features suggest that erosion of large water flows had carved Ares Vallis in the Martian landscape.

Most likely gigantic floods ran downhill, carving a deep canyon into Xanthe Terra. Rocks eroded from the valley flanks were milled into smaller fractions and transported in the running water.

Finally this sedimentary load was deposited far north at the mouth of Ares Vallis in the Chryse plains, where NASA’s Mars Pathfinder landed in 1997 to search for traces of water with its small Sojourner rover.

The scenes displayed in the images show the transition zone between Iani Chaos and Ares Vallis. A chaotic distribution of individual blocks of rock and hills forms a disrupted pattern. These ‘knobs’ are several hundred metres high. Scientists suggest that they are remnants of a preexisting landscape that collapsed after cavities had formed beneath the surface.

The elongated curvature of features extending from south to north along with terraces, streamlined ’islands’ and the smooth, flat surface in the valley centre are strong hints that it was running water that carved the valley.

Ice stored in possible cavities in the Martian highland might have been melted by volcanic heat. Pouring out, the melting water would have followed the pre-existing topography to the northern lowlands.

A hundred kilometres further, a ten-kilometre-wide valley arm merges into Ares Vallis from the west. Large amounts of water originating from Aram Chaos (outside the image) joined the stream of Ares Vallis. Fan-shaped deposits on the valley floor are the remnants of landslides at the northern flanks.

At the freshly eroded cliffs possible lava layers are visible: such layers are found almost everywhere in Xanthe Terra. Further downstream, another valley branch enters Ares Vallis from the east after passing through an eroded impact crater in Xanthe Terra. West of Ares Vallis, a subtler riverbed is running parallel to the main valley.

A black-and-white overview (bottom image) was imaged by the nadir (vertical view) channel. The orthogonal colour scenes (third image, above) were processed using the three colour channels and the nadir channel.
The perspective views (images one, six and eight) were derived from the digital terrain model based on the stereo channels, and then combined with the colour channels.

The anaglyph or stereoscopic image (fifth image, below) was processed from the nadir and one stereo channel. Image resolution have been reduced for use on the internet. The flyover video is based on the digital terrain model from the stereo channels and the colour data.

Monica Talevi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMIKO0DU8E_0.html

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL
23.06.2017 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

nachricht Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?
23.06.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>