Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Gamma-ray space observatory fully operational

02.02.2005


The third telescope aboard NASA’s Swift gamma-ray observatory, the Ultraviolet/Optical Telescope (UVOT) with key involvement from UK scientists at University College London’s Mullard Space Science Laboratory, has seen first light and is now poised to observe its first gamma-ray burst. The UVOT captured an image of the Pinwheel Galaxy, known by amateur astronomers as the ‘perfect’ face-on spiral galaxy. With the UVOT turned on the Swift observatory is fully operational. Swift’s two other instruments - the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the X-ray Telescope (XRT) with University of Leicester involvement - were turned on over the last few weeks and have been snapping up gamma-ray bursts ever since.



Swift is a NASA-led mission dedicated to unravelling the mysteries of gamma-ray bursts - random and fleeting explosions that signal the likely birth of black holes. "This was a real treat to point the UVOT toward the famous Pinwheel Galaxy, M101," said Dr. Peter Roming, UVOT Lead Scientist at the US Penn State University. "The ultraviolet wavelengths in particular reveal regions of star formation in the galaxy’s spiral arms. But more than a pretty image, this first-light observation is a test of the UVOT’s capabilities."

Swift’s three telescopes work in unison. The BAT instrument detects gamma-ray bursts and autonomously turns the satellite in seconds to bring the burst within view of the XRT and the UVOT, which provide detailed follow-up observations of the burst afterglow. Although the burst itself is gone within seconds, scientists can study the afterglow for clues about the origin and nature of the burst, much like detectives at a crime scene.


The UVOT serves several important functions. First, it will pinpoint the gamma-ray burst location a few minutes after the BAT detection. The XRT provides a burst position within a 1- to 2-arcsecond range. The UVOT will provide sub-arcsecond precision, a spot on the sky about as wide as the eye of a needle at arm’s length. This information is then relayed to scientists at observatories around the world so that they can view the afterglow with other telescopes.

As the name implies, the UVOT captures the optical and ultraviolet component of the fading burst afterglow. Prof. Keith Mason, the UK UVOT lead at University College London’s Mullard Space Science Laboratory explains, “The ’big gun’ optical observatories such as Hubble and Keck have provided useful data over the years, but only for the later portion of the afterglow. The UVOT isn’t as powerful as these observatories, but has the advantage of observing from the very dark skies of space. Moreover it will start observing the burst afterglow within minutes, as opposed to the day or weeklong delay inherent with heavily used observatories. This is extremely important because the bulk of the afterglow fades within hours."

The ultraviolet portion will be particularly revealing, says Roming. "We know nearly nothing about the ultraviolet part of a gamma-ray burst afterglow," he said. "This is because the atmosphere blocks most ultraviolet rays from reaching telescopes on Earth, and there have been few ultraviolet telescopes in orbit. We simply haven’t yet reached a burst fast enough with an ultraviolet telescope."

The UVOT’s imaging capability will enable scientists to understand the shape of the afterglow as it evolves and fades. The telescope’s spectral capability will enable detailed analysis of the dynamics of the afterglow, such as the temperature, velocity and direction of material ejected in the explosion.

The UVOT will also help scientists determine the distance to the closer gamma-ray bursts, within a redshift of 4, which corresponds to a distance of about 12 billion light years. The XRT will determine distances to more distant bursts. Scientists hope to use the UVOT and XRT to observe the afterglow of short bursts, less than two seconds long. Such afterglows have not yet been seen; it is not clear if they fade fast or simply don’t exist. Some scientists think there are at least two kinds of gamma-ray bursts: longer ones (more than two seconds) that generate afterglows and that seem to be caused by massive star explosions; and shorter ones that may be caused by mergers of black holes or neutron stars. The UVOT and XRT will help rule out various theories and scenarios.

The UVOT is a 30-centimeter telescope with intensified CCD detectors and is nearly identical to an instrument on the European Space Agency’s XMM-Newton mission. The UVOT is as sensitive as a four-meter optical ground-based telescope. The UVOT’s day-to-day observations, however, will look nothing like the Pinwheel Galaxy. Distant and faint gamma-ray burst afterglows will appear as tiny smudges of light even to the powerful UVOT. The UVOT is a joint product of Penn State and the Mullard Space Science Laboratory.

Julia Maddock | alfa
Further information:
http://www.pparc.ac.uk/Nw/UVOT_images.asp and http://swift.gsfc.nasa.gov
http://www.pparc.ac.uk/Nw/first_light.asp

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history
26.04.2017 | Southwest Research Institute

nachricht New survey hints at exotic origin for the Cold Spot
26.04.2017 | Royal Astronomical Society

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Making lightweight construction suitable for series production

More and more automobile companies are focusing on body parts made of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). However, manufacturing and repair costs must be further reduced in order to make CFRP more economical in use. Together with the Volkswagen AG and five other partners in the project HolQueSt 3D, the Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH) has developed laser processes for the automatic trimming, drilling and repair of three-dimensional components.

Automated manufacturing processes are the basis for ultimately establishing the series production of CFRP components. In the project HolQueSt 3D, the LZH has...

Im Focus: Wonder material? Novel nanotube structure strengthens thin films for flexible electronics

Reflecting the structure of composites found in nature and the ancient world, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have synthesized thin carbon nanotube (CNT) textiles that exhibit both high electrical conductivity and a level of toughness that is about fifty times higher than copper films, currently used in electronics.

"The structural robustness of thin metal films has significant importance for the reliable operation of smart skin and flexible electronics including...

Im Focus: Deep inside Galaxy M87

The nearby, giant radio galaxy M87 hosts a supermassive black hole (BH) and is well-known for its bright jet dominating the spectrum over ten orders of magnitude in frequency. Due to its proximity, jet prominence, and the large black hole mass, M87 is the best laboratory for investigating the formation, acceleration, and collimation of relativistic jets. A research team led by Silke Britzen from the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, has found strong indication for turbulent processes connecting the accretion disk and the jet of that galaxy providing insights into the longstanding problem of the origin of astrophysical jets.

Supermassive black holes form some of the most enigmatic phenomena in astrophysics. Their enormous energy output is supposed to be generated by the...

Im Focus: A Quantum Low Pass for Photons

Physicists in Garching observe novel quantum effect that limits the number of emitted photons.

The probability to find a certain number of photons inside a laser pulse usually corresponds to a classical distribution of independent events, the so-called...

Im Focus: Microprocessors based on a layer of just three atoms

Microprocessors based on atomically thin materials hold the promise of the evolution of traditional processors as well as new applications in the field of flexible electronics. Now, a TU Wien research team led by Thomas Müller has made a breakthrough in this field as part of an ongoing research project.

Two-dimensional materials, or 2D materials for short, are extremely versatile, although – or often more precisely because – they are made up of just one or a...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Expert meeting “Health Business Connect” will connect international medical technology companies

20.04.2017 | Event News

Wenn der Computer das Gehirn austrickst

18.04.2017 | Event News

7th International Conference on Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics in Freiburg on April 3-5, 2017

03.04.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Scientist invents way to trigger artificial photosynthesis to clean air

26.04.2017 | Materials Sciences

Ammonium nitrogen input increases the synthesis of anticarcinogenic compounds in broccoli

26.04.2017 | Agricultural and Forestry Science

SwRI-led team discovers lull in Mars' giant impact history

26.04.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>