Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Tithonium Chasma, Valles Marineris, on Mars

04.11.2004


Tithonium Chasma


Tithonium Chasma in perspective, looking east


These images, taken by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board ESA’s Mars Express spacecraft, show the western end of the Valles Marineris Canyon system on Mars.

The images were taken during orbit 442 with a ground resolution of approximately 52 metres per pixel. The displayed region is located at the beginning of the canyon system at about latitude 7° South and longitude 269° East. The images show the western end of the canyons Tithonium Chasma and Ius Chasma, part of the Valles Marineris canyon system, which are up to 5.5 kilometres deep.

The whole canyon system itself is the result of a variety of geological processes. Probably tectonic rifting, water and wind action, volcanism and glacial activity all have played major roles in its formation and evolution. The canyon floors are covered by a dark, layered material, the so-called ‘Interior Layered Deposits’. These deposits are marked by a system of polygonal cracks through which the underlying, lighter-coloured rock can be seen. The Interior Layered Deposits are still a major topic of research. Parts of the deposits are most probably volcanic, while in other areas a sedimentary origin has been proposed.



The morphology of the valley flanks has been modified by ‘slumping’ and rockfalls. Slumping is when a substantial part of a mountain, cliff or hill ‘breaks away’ and slides more or less intact to the bottom of the slope. Some of the major slumps here are more than thirty kilometres wide. The flanks are often covered to a large extent by their own ‘talus’, or rock debris that has fallen from the sides of a cliff or steep slope.

The large, deeply eroded Crater Oudemans in the south of the area (bottom of the image) has a diameter of about 120 kilometres. Around the central mount of the crater, large plains composed of dark rock can be seen. These plains are covered by lighter sediments, deposited through the action of the wind. Several systems of tectonic faults can be seen in the imaged area. The most prominent is the system of Valles Marineris itself, running east-west. South of Crater Oudemans, smaller tectonic ‘grabens’ running from the south-west to the north-east can be seen. To the north of the large canyons, there are more fault systems.

The Valles Marineris region is one of the most studied areas on Mars. The canyon system is one of the major keys to the tectonic and volcanic history of this planet. Research on the sedimentary rocks and the products of erosion can also provide major insights into its climatic evolution. Due to the stereo capability of the HRSC, the new image data gained can provide new insights into the geology of Mars. This will lead to a new, more precise reconstruction of Martian geological history.

Image resolution has been decreased for use on the internet. The colour images were processed using the nadir (vertical view) and colour channels. The perspective views were calculated from the digital terrain model derived from the stereo channels. The 3D anaglyph image was created from the nadir channel and one of the stereo channels. Stereoscopic glasses are needed to view the 3D image.

For more information on Mars Express HRSC images, you might like to read our updated ’Frequently Asked Questions’.

Guido de Marchi | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esa.int
http://www.esa.int/SPECIALS/Mars_Express/SEMY4R0A90E_0.html

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Significantly more productivity in USP lasers
06.12.2016 | Fraunhofer-Institut für Lasertechnik ILT

nachricht Shape matters when light meets atom
05.12.2016 | Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Significantly more productivity in USP lasers

In recent years, lasers with ultrashort pulses (USP) down to the femtosecond range have become established on an industrial scale. They could advance some applications with the much-lauded “cold ablation” – if that meant they would then achieve more throughput. A new generation of process engineering that will address this issue in particular will be discussed at the “4th UKP Workshop – Ultrafast Laser Technology” in April 2017.

Even back in the 1990s, scientists were comparing materials processing with nanosecond, picosecond and femtosesecond pulses. The result was surprising:...

Im Focus: Shape matters when light meets atom

Mapping the interaction of a single atom with a single photon may inform design of quantum devices

Have you ever wondered how you see the world? Vision is about photons of light, which are packets of energy, interacting with the atoms or molecules in what...

Im Focus: Novel silicon etching technique crafts 3-D gradient refractive index micro-optics

A multi-institutional research collaboration has created a novel approach for fabricating three-dimensional micro-optics through the shape-defined formation of porous silicon (PSi), with broad impacts in integrated optoelectronics, imaging, and photovoltaics.

Working with colleagues at Stanford and The Dow Chemical Company, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign fabricated 3-D birefringent...

Im Focus: Quantum Particles Form Droplets

In experiments with magnetic atoms conducted at extremely low temperatures, scientists have demonstrated a unique phase of matter: The atoms form a new type of quantum liquid or quantum droplet state. These so called quantum droplets may preserve their form in absence of external confinement because of quantum effects. The joint team of experimental physicists from Innsbruck and theoretical physicists from Hannover report on their findings in the journal Physical Review X.

“Our Quantum droplets are in the gas phase but they still drop like a rock,” explains experimental physicist Francesca Ferlaino when talking about the...

Im Focus: MADMAX: Max Planck Institute for Physics takes up axion research

The Max Planck Institute for Physics (MPP) is opening up a new research field. A workshop from November 21 - 22, 2016 will mark the start of activities for an innovative axion experiment. Axions are still only purely hypothetical particles. Their detection could solve two fundamental problems in particle physics: What dark matter consists of and why it has not yet been possible to directly observe a CP violation for the strong interaction.

The “MADMAX” project is the MPP’s commitment to axion research. Axions are so far only a theoretical prediction and are difficult to detect: on the one hand,...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ICTM Conference 2017: Production technology for turbomachine manufacturing of the future

16.11.2016 | Event News

Innovation Day Laser Technology – Laser Additive Manufacturing

01.11.2016 | Event News

#IC2S2: When Social Science meets Computer Science - GESIS will host the IC2S2 conference 2017

14.10.2016 | Event News

 
Latest News

NTU scientists build new ultrasound device using 3-D printing technology

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

The balancing act: An enzyme that links endocytosis to membrane recycling

07.12.2016 | Life Sciences

How to turn white fat brown

07.12.2016 | Health and Medicine

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>