Scientists have found that the way spiders stick to ceilings could be the key to making Post-it® notes that don’t fall off – even when they are wet. A team from Germany and Switzerland have made the first detailed examinations of a jumping spider’s ‘foot’ and have discovered that a molecular force sticks the spider to almost anything. The force is so strong that these spiders could carry over 170 times their own body weight while standing on the ceiling. The research is published today (Monday 19 April 2004) in the Institute of Physics journal Smart Materials and Structures.
A scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrograph of the foot of the jumping spider E. arcuata. In addition to the tarsal claws, a tuft of hair called a scopula is found at the tip of the foot, which is what the spider uses to attach itself to surfaces. The long hairs which are distributed over the entire foot are sensitive to touch
This is the first time anyone has measured exactly how spiders stick to surfaces, and how strong the adhesion force is. The team used a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to make images of the foot of a jumping spider, Evarcha arcuata (pictures available – see notes). There is a tuft of hairs on the bottom of the spider’s leg, and each individual hair is covered in more hairs. These smaller hairs are called setules, and they are what makes the spider stick.
The paper reveals that the force these spiders use to stick to surfaces is the van der Waals force, which acts between individual molecules that are within a nanometre of each other (a nanometre is about ten thousand times smaller than the width of a human hair). The team used a technique called Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to measure this force. The flexible contact tips of the setules are triangular (pictures available – see notes), and they have an amazingly high adhesive force on the underlying surface.
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