Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Not your father’s periodic table

14.10.2003


Dimitri Mendeleev, a Russian, and Lothar Meyer, a German, published early versions of periodic tables in 1869 and 1870, respectively. Well, roll over, Mendeleev, tell Meyer the news: Washington University’s Katharina Lodders has developed an innovative periodic table, slanted toward astronomy, that’s definitely not your father’s periodic table.
David Kilper/WUSTL photo


Dimitri Mendeleev
Courtesy photo


Revised periodic table slanted toward astronomers

The periodic table isn’t what it used to be, thanks to innovations by a planetary chemist at Washington University in St. Louis.

Katharina Lodders, Ph.D., Washington University research associate professor in Earth and Planetary Sciences in Arts & Sciences, has evalutated data from numerous studies including her own and arranged the data into a periodic table slanted toward astronomers and cosmochemists. It’s the Cosmochemical Periodic Table of the Elements in the Solar System. Instead of atomic number, atomic weights, and melting- and boiling points, for example, Lodders provides elemental abundances and condensation temperatures. And it’s color-coded to indicate host phases of the elements - the phase where the element condenses into metal, sulfide, or silicate rock.



It’s an outright work of art, definitely not your father’s periodic table

"For the first time, there is a periodic table providing self-consistent data for abundances and condensation temperatures," she said. "The idea was to combine everything for easy comparison and quick reference."

It’s one-stop shopping for astronomers and cosmochemists, a sort of Sam’s Club for researchers of the cosmos. The table will be very valuable for researchers modeling planets and planetary satellites, meteorites and asteroids, and other stars and solar systems. And it also is beneficial because the abundances of elements presented in the table reflect the latest developments in astronomy. One of the most recent influential findings is that the heavier elements - everything heavier than helium - in the sun’s outer layer, its photosphere, settle towards its interior.

Because the sun contains more than 99 percent of the entire mass of the solar system, the composition of the sun tells astronomers much of what they need to know of the whole solar system. But if the heavy elements settled from the photosphere, researchers can no longer use the photospheric abundances observed today as representative of solar system abundances about 4.5 billion years ago when the planets formed.

Lodders takes that into account. In her table for the abundances and the condensation temperatures, she calculated for the new abundance set. In part, she used results from models of the sun’s evolution to assemble the abundance data together with recent redeterminations of several important elemental abundances, including the key biogenic elements carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.

"It turns out that these abundances are only roughly half of that previously thought," she said. "This is important because if the abundances of carbon and oxygen, a major fraction of the heavy elements in the sun and solar system, have been revised downward, then there will be changes introduced in the amount of condensates that can form and in the amount of oxygen tied up into rocky condensates and ices.

"If I use the old abundances, about 15 percent of the total oxygen goes into rock, but now it’s about 23 percent oxygen that can go into rocky condensates. This means less oxygen is available to form ices, which is an important consequence for modeling all of the chemistry of the outer solar system - giant planets, their satellites and other icy bodies such as comets."

Lodders’ table made its debut in July 31, 2003 at the Meteoritical Society Meeting in Munster, Germany. All of the data appear in table and text in "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements," published July 10, 2003, in The Astrophysical Journal.

"This table reflects the work of many astronomers and cosmochemists going back to the ’60s and ’70s, and abundance determinations and condensation modeling are continuing," said Lodders. "But the abundance tables and the related condensation temperatures needed desperate updating because of all the new developments. It was time to put it all together."

Tony Fitzpatrick | WUSTL
Further information:
http://news-info.wustl.edu/tips/page/normal/424.html
http://www.wustl.edu/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Tracing aromatic molecules in the early universe
23.03.2017 | University of California - Riverside

nachricht New study maps space dust in 3-D
23.03.2017 | DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Giant Magnetic Fields in the Universe

Astronomers from Bonn and Tautenburg in Thuringia (Germany) used the 100-m radio telescope at Effelsberg to observe several galaxy clusters. At the edges of these large accumulations of dark matter, stellar systems (galaxies), hot gas, and charged particles, they found magnetic fields that are exceptionally ordered over distances of many million light years. This makes them the most extended magnetic fields in the universe known so far.

The results will be published on March 22 in the journal „Astronomy & Astrophysics“.

Galaxy clusters are the largest gravitationally bound structures in the universe. With a typical extent of about 10 million light years, i.e. 100 times the...

Im Focus: Tracing down linear ubiquitination

Researchers at the Goethe University Frankfurt, together with partners from the University of Tübingen in Germany and Queen Mary University as well as Francis Crick Institute from London (UK) have developed a novel technology to decipher the secret ubiquitin code.

Ubiquitin is a small protein that can be linked to other cellular proteins, thereby controlling and modulating their functions. The attachment occurs in many...

Im Focus: Perovskite edges can be tuned for optoelectronic performance

Layered 2D material improves efficiency for solar cells and LEDs

In the eternal search for next generation high-efficiency solar cells and LEDs, scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory and their partners are creating...

Im Focus: Polymer-coated silicon nanosheets as alternative to graphene: A perfect team for nanoelectronics

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are less stable. Now researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) have, for the first time ever, produced a composite material combining silicon nanosheets and a polymer that is both UV-resistant and easy to process. This brings the scientists a significant step closer to industrial applications like flexible displays and photosensors.

Silicon nanosheets are thin, two-dimensional layers with exceptional optoelectronic properties very similar to those of graphene. Albeit, the nanosheets are...

Im Focus: Researchers Imitate Molecular Crowding in Cells

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to simulate these confined natural conditions in artificial vesicles for the first time. As reported in the academic journal Small, the results are offering better insight into the development of nanoreactors and artificial organelles.

Enzymes behave differently in a test tube compared with the molecular scrum of a living cell. Chemists from the University of Basel have now been able to...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

International Land Use Symposium ILUS 2017: Call for Abstracts and Registration open

20.03.2017 | Event News

CONNECT 2017: International congress on connective tissue

14.03.2017 | Event News

ICTM Conference: Turbine Construction between Big Data and Additive Manufacturing

07.03.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

When Air is in Short Supply - Shedding light on plant stress reactions when oxygen runs short

23.03.2017 | Life Sciences

Researchers use light to remotely control curvature of plastics

23.03.2017 | Power and Electrical Engineering

Sea ice extent sinks to record lows at both poles

23.03.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>