Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Not your father’s periodic table

14.10.2003


Dimitri Mendeleev, a Russian, and Lothar Meyer, a German, published early versions of periodic tables in 1869 and 1870, respectively. Well, roll over, Mendeleev, tell Meyer the news: Washington University’s Katharina Lodders has developed an innovative periodic table, slanted toward astronomy, that’s definitely not your father’s periodic table.
David Kilper/WUSTL photo


Dimitri Mendeleev
Courtesy photo


Revised periodic table slanted toward astronomers

The periodic table isn’t what it used to be, thanks to innovations by a planetary chemist at Washington University in St. Louis.

Katharina Lodders, Ph.D., Washington University research associate professor in Earth and Planetary Sciences in Arts & Sciences, has evalutated data from numerous studies including her own and arranged the data into a periodic table slanted toward astronomers and cosmochemists. It’s the Cosmochemical Periodic Table of the Elements in the Solar System. Instead of atomic number, atomic weights, and melting- and boiling points, for example, Lodders provides elemental abundances and condensation temperatures. And it’s color-coded to indicate host phases of the elements - the phase where the element condenses into metal, sulfide, or silicate rock.



It’s an outright work of art, definitely not your father’s periodic table

"For the first time, there is a periodic table providing self-consistent data for abundances and condensation temperatures," she said. "The idea was to combine everything for easy comparison and quick reference."

It’s one-stop shopping for astronomers and cosmochemists, a sort of Sam’s Club for researchers of the cosmos. The table will be very valuable for researchers modeling planets and planetary satellites, meteorites and asteroids, and other stars and solar systems. And it also is beneficial because the abundances of elements presented in the table reflect the latest developments in astronomy. One of the most recent influential findings is that the heavier elements - everything heavier than helium - in the sun’s outer layer, its photosphere, settle towards its interior.

Because the sun contains more than 99 percent of the entire mass of the solar system, the composition of the sun tells astronomers much of what they need to know of the whole solar system. But if the heavy elements settled from the photosphere, researchers can no longer use the photospheric abundances observed today as representative of solar system abundances about 4.5 billion years ago when the planets formed.

Lodders takes that into account. In her table for the abundances and the condensation temperatures, she calculated for the new abundance set. In part, she used results from models of the sun’s evolution to assemble the abundance data together with recent redeterminations of several important elemental abundances, including the key biogenic elements carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.

"It turns out that these abundances are only roughly half of that previously thought," she said. "This is important because if the abundances of carbon and oxygen, a major fraction of the heavy elements in the sun and solar system, have been revised downward, then there will be changes introduced in the amount of condensates that can form and in the amount of oxygen tied up into rocky condensates and ices.

"If I use the old abundances, about 15 percent of the total oxygen goes into rock, but now it’s about 23 percent oxygen that can go into rocky condensates. This means less oxygen is available to form ices, which is an important consequence for modeling all of the chemistry of the outer solar system - giant planets, their satellites and other icy bodies such as comets."

Lodders’ table made its debut in July 31, 2003 at the Meteoritical Society Meeting in Munster, Germany. All of the data appear in table and text in "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements," published July 10, 2003, in The Astrophysical Journal.

"This table reflects the work of many astronomers and cosmochemists going back to the ’60s and ’70s, and abundance determinations and condensation modeling are continuing," said Lodders. "But the abundance tables and the related condensation temperatures needed desperate updating because of all the new developments. It was time to put it all together."

Tony Fitzpatrick | WUSTL
Further information:
http://news-info.wustl.edu/tips/page/normal/424.html
http://www.wustl.edu/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time
17.10.2017 | University of Maryland

nachricht Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging
17.10.2017 | American Association for the Advancement of Science

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Neutron star merger directly observed for the first time

University of Maryland researchers contribute to historic detection of gravitational waves and light created by event

On August 17, 2017, at 12:41:04 UTC, scientists made the first direct observation of a merger between two neutron stars--the dense, collapsed cores that remain...

Im Focus: Breaking: the first light from two neutron stars merging

Seven new papers describe the first-ever detection of light from a gravitational wave source. The event, caused by two neutron stars colliding and merging together, was dubbed GW170817 because it sent ripples through space-time that reached Earth on 2017 August 17. Around the world, hundreds of excited astronomers mobilized quickly and were able to observe the event using numerous telescopes, providing a wealth of new data.

Previous detections of gravitational waves have all involved the merger of two black holes, a feat that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics earlier this month....

Im Focus: Smart sensors for efficient processes

Material defects in end products can quickly result in failures in many areas of industry, and have a massive impact on the safe use of their products. This is why, in the field of quality assurance, intelligent, nondestructive sensor systems play a key role. They allow testing components and parts in a rapid and cost-efficient manner without destroying the actual product or changing its surface. Experts from the Fraunhofer IZFP in Saarbrücken will be presenting two exhibits at the Blechexpo in Stuttgart from 7–10 November 2017 that allow fast, reliable, and automated characterization of materials and detection of defects (Hall 5, Booth 5306).

When quality testing uses time-consuming destructive test methods, it can result in enormous costs due to damaging or destroying the products. And given that...

Im Focus: Cold molecules on collision course

Using a new cooling technique MPQ scientists succeed at observing collisions in a dense beam of cold and slow dipolar molecules.

How do chemical reactions proceed at extremely low temperatures? The answer requires the investigation of molecular samples that are cold, dense, and slow at...

Im Focus: Shrinking the proton again!

Scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics, using high precision laser spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen, confirm the surprisingly small value of the proton radius determined from muonic hydrogen.

It was one of the breakthroughs of the year 2010: Laser spectroscopy of muonic hydrogen resulted in a value for the proton charge radius that was significantly...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

ASEAN Member States discuss the future role of renewable energy

17.10.2017 | Event News

World Health Summit 2017: International experts set the course for the future of Global Health

10.10.2017 | Event News

Climate Engineering Conference 2017 Opens in Berlin

10.10.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Ocean atmosphere rife with microbes

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

Neutrons observe vitamin B6-dependent enzyme activity useful for drug development

17.10.2017 | Life Sciences

NASA finds newly formed tropical storm lan over open waters

17.10.2017 | Earth Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>