Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

Not your father’s periodic table

14.10.2003


Dimitri Mendeleev, a Russian, and Lothar Meyer, a German, published early versions of periodic tables in 1869 and 1870, respectively. Well, roll over, Mendeleev, tell Meyer the news: Washington University’s Katharina Lodders has developed an innovative periodic table, slanted toward astronomy, that’s definitely not your father’s periodic table.
David Kilper/WUSTL photo


Dimitri Mendeleev
Courtesy photo


Revised periodic table slanted toward astronomers

The periodic table isn’t what it used to be, thanks to innovations by a planetary chemist at Washington University in St. Louis.

Katharina Lodders, Ph.D., Washington University research associate professor in Earth and Planetary Sciences in Arts & Sciences, has evalutated data from numerous studies including her own and arranged the data into a periodic table slanted toward astronomers and cosmochemists. It’s the Cosmochemical Periodic Table of the Elements in the Solar System. Instead of atomic number, atomic weights, and melting- and boiling points, for example, Lodders provides elemental abundances and condensation temperatures. And it’s color-coded to indicate host phases of the elements - the phase where the element condenses into metal, sulfide, or silicate rock.



It’s an outright work of art, definitely not your father’s periodic table

"For the first time, there is a periodic table providing self-consistent data for abundances and condensation temperatures," she said. "The idea was to combine everything for easy comparison and quick reference."

It’s one-stop shopping for astronomers and cosmochemists, a sort of Sam’s Club for researchers of the cosmos. The table will be very valuable for researchers modeling planets and planetary satellites, meteorites and asteroids, and other stars and solar systems. And it also is beneficial because the abundances of elements presented in the table reflect the latest developments in astronomy. One of the most recent influential findings is that the heavier elements - everything heavier than helium - in the sun’s outer layer, its photosphere, settle towards its interior.

Because the sun contains more than 99 percent of the entire mass of the solar system, the composition of the sun tells astronomers much of what they need to know of the whole solar system. But if the heavy elements settled from the photosphere, researchers can no longer use the photospheric abundances observed today as representative of solar system abundances about 4.5 billion years ago when the planets formed.

Lodders takes that into account. In her table for the abundances and the condensation temperatures, she calculated for the new abundance set. In part, she used results from models of the sun’s evolution to assemble the abundance data together with recent redeterminations of several important elemental abundances, including the key biogenic elements carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.

"It turns out that these abundances are only roughly half of that previously thought," she said. "This is important because if the abundances of carbon and oxygen, a major fraction of the heavy elements in the sun and solar system, have been revised downward, then there will be changes introduced in the amount of condensates that can form and in the amount of oxygen tied up into rocky condensates and ices.

"If I use the old abundances, about 15 percent of the total oxygen goes into rock, but now it’s about 23 percent oxygen that can go into rocky condensates. This means less oxygen is available to form ices, which is an important consequence for modeling all of the chemistry of the outer solar system - giant planets, their satellites and other icy bodies such as comets."

Lodders’ table made its debut in July 31, 2003 at the Meteoritical Society Meeting in Munster, Germany. All of the data appear in table and text in "Solar System Abundances and Condensation Temperatures of the Elements," published July 10, 2003, in The Astrophysical Journal.

"This table reflects the work of many astronomers and cosmochemists going back to the ’60s and ’70s, and abundance determinations and condensation modeling are continuing," said Lodders. "But the abundance tables and the related condensation temperatures needed desperate updating because of all the new developments. It was time to put it all together."

Tony Fitzpatrick | WUSTL
Further information:
http://news-info.wustl.edu/tips/page/normal/424.html
http://www.wustl.edu/

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form
18.08.2017 | Cornell University

nachricht Astrophysicists explain the mysterious behavior of cosmic rays
18.08.2017 | Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Fizzy soda water could be key to clean manufacture of flat wonder material: Graphene

Whether you call it effervescent, fizzy, or sparkling, carbonated water is making a comeback as a beverage. Aside from quenching thirst, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have discovered a new use for these "bubbly" concoctions that will have major impact on the manufacturer of the world's thinnest, flattest, and one most useful materials -- graphene.

As graphene's popularity grows as an advanced "wonder" material, the speed and quality at which it can be manufactured will be paramount. With that in mind,...

Im Focus: Exotic quantum states made from light: Physicists create optical “wells” for a super-photon

Physicists at the University of Bonn have managed to create optical hollows and more complex patterns into which the light of a Bose-Einstein condensate flows. The creation of such highly low-loss structures for light is a prerequisite for complex light circuits, such as for quantum information processing for a new generation of computers. The researchers are now presenting their results in the journal Nature Photonics.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are...

Im Focus: Circular RNA linked to brain function

For the first time, scientists have shown that circular RNA is linked to brain function. When a RNA molecule called Cdr1as was deleted from the genome of mice, the animals had problems filtering out unnecessary information – like patients suffering from neuropsychiatric disorders.

While hundreds of circular RNAs (circRNAs) are abundant in mammalian brains, one big question has remained unanswered: What are they actually good for? In the...

Im Focus: RAVAN CubeSat measures Earth's outgoing energy

An experimental small satellite has successfully collected and delivered data on a key measurement for predicting changes in Earth's climate.

The Radiometer Assessment using Vertically Aligned Nanotubes (RAVAN) CubeSat was launched into low-Earth orbit on Nov. 11, 2016, in order to test new...

Im Focus: Scientists shine new light on the “other high temperature superconductor”

A study led by scientists of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science in Hamburg presents evidence of the coexistence of superconductivity and “charge-density-waves” in compounds of the poorly-studied family of bismuthates. This observation opens up new perspectives for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of high-temperature superconductivity, a topic which is at the core of condensed matter research since more than 30 years. The paper by Nicoletti et al has been published in the PNAS.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, superconductivity had been observed in some metals at temperatures only a few degrees above the absolute zero (minus...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Call for Papers – ICNFT 2018, 5th International Conference on New Forming Technology

16.08.2017 | Event News

Sustainability is the business model of tomorrow

04.08.2017 | Event News

Clash of Realities 2017: Registration now open. International Conference at TH Köln

26.07.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

A Map of the Cell’s Power Station

18.08.2017 | Life Sciences

Engineering team images tiny quasicrystals as they form

18.08.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Researchers printed graphene-like materials with inkjet

18.08.2017 | Materials Sciences

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>