Three years before he received the Nobel Prize in Physics, Eugene Wigner published an article entitled "The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences" (1960). He marveled at how often physicists develop concepts to describe the "real" world only to discover that mathematicians--heedless of that real world--have already thought up and explored the concepts. His own experience of the uncanny applicability of mathematical insights to the physical reality of quantum mechanics led Wigner to observe "that the enormous usefulness of mathematics in the natural sciences is something bordering on the mysterious and that there is no rational explanation for it."
When compressed by a liquid droplet, small groups of colloidal microspheres -- plastic spheres with diameters about one one-hundredth that of a human hair -- pack to form an unusual sequence of structures. At top are packings containing four to eleven spheres, as seen through the scanning electron microscope. At bottom are the polyhedra defined by drawing lines between the centers of touching spheres in each cluster. Some of these polyhedra are familiar structures, such as the tetrahedron (4 spheres) and octahedron (6 spheres), but most of the others -- including the "snub disphenoid" (8 spheres) and the "gyroelongated square dipyramid" (10 spheres) -- are probably unfamiliar, despite their attractive symmetry. Nevertheless, all of these structures obey a single, simple mathematical rule: they all minimize a quantity called the second moment. This is the first observation of this packing motif in nature. [Image credit: V. N. Manoharan]
Doubtless the observation of just such an uncanny correspondence between mathematics and physics prompted the editors of the July 25 issue of "Science" to feature on the cover the colloidal particle clusters that are the subject of research by an engineering professor and his two graduate students at the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB). That professor, David Pine, holds a joint appointment in the departments of Chemical Engineering and Materials and chairs the Chemical Engineering Department. The first author of the article, "Dense Packing and Symmetry in Small Clusters of Microspheres," is Vinothan Manoharan; the other author is Mark Elsesser.
Their story begins with the iridescence of opals, which are composed of equal-sized spheres about a micrometer in diameter, or roughly a hundred times smaller than the size of a human hair. The spheres are packed into a structure known as the face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice, which is exactly the same arrangement used by grocers to stack oranges or apples. Because the opals constituent spheres are about the size of the wavelength of light, their orderly arrangement diffracts light and causes iridescence.
Jacquelyn Savani | EurekAlert!
Artificial Intelligence Helps in the Discovery of New Materials
21.09.2016 | Universität Basel
Magnetic polaron imaged for the first time
19.09.2016 | Aalto University
The Fraunhofer Institute for Organic Electronics, Electron Beam and Plasma Technology FEP has been developing various applications for OLED microdisplays based on organic semiconductors. By integrating the capabilities of an image sensor directly into the microdisplay, eye movements can be recorded by the smart glasses and utilized for guidance and control functions, as one example. The new design will be debuted at Augmented World Expo Europe (AWE) in Berlin at Booth B25, October 18th – 19th.
“Augmented-reality” and “wearables” have become terms we encounter almost daily. Both can make daily life a little simpler and provide valuable assistance for...
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. They report on their findings in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters.
Elpasolite is a glassy, transparent, shiny and soft mineral with a cubic crystal structure. First discovered in El Paso County (Colorado, USA), it can also be...
For the first time, Fraunhofer IKTS shows additively manufactured hardmetal tools at WorldPM 2016 in Hamburg. Mechanical, chemical as well as a high heat resistance and extreme hardness are required from tools that are used in mechanical and automotive engineering or in plastics and building materials industry. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems IKTS in Dresden managed the production of complex hardmetal tools via 3D printing in a quality that are in no way inferior to conventionally produced high-performance tools.
Fraunhofer IKTS counts decades of proven expertise in the development of hardmetals. To date, reliable cutting, drilling, pressing and stamping tools made of...
At AKL’16, the International Laser Technology Congress held in May this year, interest in the topic of process control was greater than expected. Appropriately, the event was also used to launch the Industry Working Group for Process Control in Laser Material Processing. The group provides a forum for representatives from industry and research to initiate pre-competitive projects and discuss issues such as standards, potential cost savings and feasibility.
In the age of industry 4.0, laser technology is firmly established within manufacturing. A wide variety of laser techniques – from USP ablation and additive...
Every three years, the plastics industry gathers at K, the international trade fair for plastics and rubber in Düsseldorf. The Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT will also be attending again and presenting many innovative technologies, such as for joining plastics and metals using ultrashort pulse lasers. From October 19 to 26, you can find the Fraunhofer ILT at the joint Fraunhofer booth SC01 in Hall 7.
K is the world’s largest trade fair for the plastics and rubber industry. As in previous years, the organizers are expecting 3,000 exhibitors and more than...
23.09.2016 | Event News
20.09.2016 | Event News
16.09.2016 | Event News
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences
23.09.2016 | Health and Medicine
23.09.2016 | Life Sciences