Forum for Science, Industry and Business

Sponsored by:     3M 
Search our Site:

 

ESA’s XMM-Newton makes the first measurement of a dead star’s magnetism

12.06.2003


Using the superior sensitivity of ESA’s X-ray observatory, XMM-Newton, a team of European astronomers has made the first direct measurement of a neutron star’s magnetic field.



The results provide deep insights into the extreme physics of neutron stars and reveal a new mystery yet to be solved about the end of this star’s life.

A neutron star is very dense celestial object that usually has something like the mass of our Sun packed into a tiny sphere only 20–30 km across. It is the product of a stellar explosion, known as a supernova, in which most of the star is blasted into space, but its collapsed heart remains in the form of a super-dense, hot ball of neutrons that spins at a incredible rate.


Despite being a familiar class of object, individual neutron stars themselves remain mysterious. Neutron stars are extremely hot when they are born, but cool down very rapidly. Therefore, only few of them emit highly energetic radiation, such as X-rays. This is why they are traditionally studied via their radio emissions, which are less energetic than X-rays and which usually appear to pulse on and off. Therefore, the few neutron stars which are hot enough to emit X-rays can be seen by X-ray telescopes, such as ESA’s XMM-Newton.
One such neutron star is 1E1207.4-5209. Using the longest ever XMM-Newton observation of a galactic source (72 hours), Professor Giovanni Bignami of the Centre d’Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements (CESR) and his team have directly measured the strength of its magnetic field. This makes it the first ever isolated neutron star where this could be achieved.

All previous values of neutron star magnetic fields could only be estimated indirectly. This is done by theoretical assumptions based on models that describe the gravitational collapse of massive stars, like those which lead to the formation of neutron stars. A second indirect method is to estimate the magnetic field by studying how the neutron star’s rotation slows down, using radio astronomy data.

In the case of 1E1207.4-5209, this direct measurement using XMM-Newton reveals that the neutron star’s magnetic field is 30 times weaker than predictions based on the indirect methods.

How can this be explained? Astronomers can measure the rate at which individual neutron stars decelerate. They have always assumed that ‘friction’ between its magnetic field and its surroundings was the cause. In this case, the only conclusion is that something else is pulling on the neutron star, but what? We can speculate that it may be a small disc of supernova debris surrounding the neutron star, creating an additional drag factor.

The result raises the question of whether 1E1207.4-5209 is unique among neutron stars, or it is the first of its kind. The astronomers hope to target other neutron stars with XMM-Newton to find out.

Karina De Castris | alfa
Further information:
http://www.esa.int

More articles from Physics and Astronomy:

nachricht A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL
23.06.2017 | Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne

nachricht Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?
23.06.2017 | National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)

All articles from Physics and Astronomy >>>

The most recent press releases about innovation >>>

Die letzten 5 Focus-News des innovations-reports im Überblick:

Im Focus: Can we see monkeys from space? Emerging technologies to map biodiversity

An international team of scientists has proposed a new multi-disciplinary approach in which an array of new technologies will allow us to map biodiversity and the risks that wildlife is facing at the scale of whole landscapes. The findings are published in Nature Ecology and Evolution. This international research is led by the Kunming Institute of Zoology from China, University of East Anglia, University of Leicester and the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research.

Using a combination of satellite and ground data, the team proposes that it is now possible to map biodiversity with an accuracy that has not been previously...

Im Focus: Climate satellite: Tracking methane with robust laser technology

Heatwaves in the Arctic, longer periods of vegetation in Europe, severe floods in West Africa – starting in 2021, scientists want to explore the emissions of the greenhouse gas methane with the German-French satellite MERLIN. This is made possible by a new robust laser system of the Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT in Aachen, which achieves unprecedented measurement accuracy.

Methane is primarily the result of the decomposition of organic matter. The gas has a 25 times greater warming potential than carbon dioxide, but is not as...

Im Focus: How protons move through a fuel cell

Hydrogen is regarded as the energy source of the future: It is produced with solar power and can be used to generate heat and electricity in fuel cells. Empa researchers have now succeeded in decoding the movement of hydrogen ions in crystals – a key step towards more efficient energy conversion in the hydrogen industry of tomorrow.

As charge carriers, electrons and ions play the leading role in electrochemical energy storage devices and converters such as batteries and fuel cells. Proton...

Im Focus: A unique data centre for cosmological simulations

Scientists from the Excellence Cluster Universe at the Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität Munich have establised "Cosmowebportal", a unique data centre for cosmological simulations located at the Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ) of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. The complete results of a series of large hydrodynamical cosmological simulations are available, with data volumes typically exceeding several hundred terabytes. Scientists worldwide can interactively explore these complex simulations via a web interface and directly access the results.

With current telescopes, scientists can observe our Universe’s galaxies and galaxy clusters and their distribution along an invisible cosmic web. From the...

Im Focus: Scientists develop molecular thermometer for contactless measurement using infrared light

Temperature measurements possible even on the smallest scale / Molecular ruby for use in material sciences, biology, and medicine

Chemists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in cooperation with researchers of the German Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM)...

All Focus news of the innovation-report >>>

Anzeige

Anzeige

Event News

Plants are networkers

19.06.2017 | Event News

Digital Survival Training for Executives

13.06.2017 | Event News

Global Learning Council Summit 2017

13.06.2017 | Event News

 
Latest News

Quantum thermometer or optical refrigerator?

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

A 100-year-old physics problem has been solved at EPFL

23.06.2017 | Physics and Astronomy

Equipping form with function

23.06.2017 | Information Technology

VideoLinks
B2B-VideoLinks
More VideoLinks >>>